Workplace exploitation refers to making employees work in an industry for 12 hours or more per day with the merciless overseer. Labor power is a capacity by which employee work more than their capacity in an order to enhance value. In earlier time, there were many issues where the labors or workers are worked like slave and are benefited from their working to an extent of that fair reward for the practices of their hard work were not paid to them (Karsh Beasley and Hagenauer, 2004). They are also exploited in many forms such as child labor, sexual harassment, racial discrimination etc.
This is a report prepared with an intention to present literature review on identification of gap in exploiting Romanians workers in hospitality industry in London between 2000 to 2007. In UK, tourism is the third biggest sector where more than 2 million workers are employed. This had given rise to many labor migrants from Romania to go London for job. The study is provided to revel the fact of gap which has been identified in context to exploitation of Romanian workers.
Globalization has been spreading and thus integrating economies of all the nations to connect. The resultant is influencing the labors to to migrant from one nation to another and get into employment to earn good wages or salaries in fair return. The most important consideration lies in safeguarding of the labors right and welfare in doing job across borders. However, various issues have came across where the employees are exploited in several ways at the workplace.
Working conditions are very important dimension which is required to be considered for employee's well being. If the favorable environment is provided to them, they do the things in defined way. In similar fashion, there are things which are required to be provided in effective way so that work stress can be minimized and they do work in most favorable way. It is in context of migrated people specially who came from far off places to do job. It becomes imperative from their side to be acknowledged with the aspects of labor rights and workplaces laws. Also, the place at which they are employed should promote the things in more defined manner. Work stress is another term which need to be effectively studied and should be taken into consideration by taking various things such as burden and tension free surrounding to work for producing better and effective resultant outcomes. According to the Grebner and et.al (2005), work stress is the possible outcome of impaired well being, health and performance. They suggested that it is the responsibility of an organization that source of cost should be employed for health care costs. The employee well being and protection is evidenced from the method used for analysis which is based on two wave field study where by taking sample of 93 male and female participants. The findings reflected that job related well being was measured by job satisfaction. It has been analyzed that there are various short and long term implications of stress on job which need to effectively solved (Grebner and et.al., 2005).
Work intensity and gender are also the aspects which holds be taken as most important aspect which need to be undertaken with an intention to acknowledge the work performed with efficiency without taking the factor of discrimination in respect to sex or gender. Work intensity should be effectively evaluated so that employees from other nation may feel safe. Thus, it may also develop the intensity by which two countries come closer to each other with the belief that safe workplace is provide to their citizens. According to the study made by Burchell and Fagan (2004), the information was collected from the European Working Conditions Survey in 2000 on the working conditions, health, and well-being of the employed in the fifteen EU member states. They have focused on work intensity and gender. This is most important consideration in respect to the Romanian workforce who didn't have automatic right to work in the UK. There were problems being faced by self employed workers to work in London. They are worked for long working hours and even the factor of discrimination was faced by them. The aspect depicting relationship between the occupational class and health are interrelated (Burchell and Fagan, 2004). The findings of their studies reveled that impact of women and men's working conditions on their life affects the work life balances. It has been examined from that correlation between working conditions and health suggest that self report is ideally a good method and is reliable. However, the method of self report has been criticized and thus carries negative affectivity too. But an evaluation of report revels that when personality disposition are controlled, then working conditions and stress can be measured.
The central idea of the given case study is to reflect the unfair practices by which people who went to UK for doing job were exploited. Romanians are considered as highly capable and ethically influenced workforce who were even ready to work at very slow wage rate. This is the reason why the people are exploited by taking their best of advantage at very nominal rate. As refereed from the case that took place between 2000 to 2007 at London, it has been depicted that Romanian who were employed there were paid lower wages which is even sometime below the national minimum wage. However, it was illegal but the main reason were that those employed workers were not employed about the employment rights and other laws for their benefits. Moreover, it has been obtained that they had not enjoyed the privilege of job security and fringe benefits as well. This is a reflection of the exploitation of Romania migrants at UK.
As per the workplace conditions which were existing there, economic, social security and substandard working conditions have been studied. It has been undertaken with the help of an example of case of the German Cleaning Industry. It is taken to investigate the changes that took place in collective bargaining policy in the German cleaning industry in recent years. In the words of Schramm and Schlese (2005), the study depicted that during 2002, employment conditions are taken into account on the basis of socio-demography, working hours, income, subjective perception of employment, professional expectations, satisfaction etc. However, they believed that employee must be identified with the workplace rules, policies and rights and must take actions in legal way (Schramm and Schlese, 2005).
In the words of Karsh, Beasley and Hagenauer (2004), it has been analyzed that use of electronic medical records (EMRs) should be exercised to attain the employee medical information. It has been reveled that this is a way by which working conditions of the workers, work life quality, and care can be developed. The study has been made with the help of sectional survey where sample of family physicians of number 1482 was conducted. The findings in respect of providing effective and proper workplace setting to the employees can be maintained by EMR (Karsh Beasley and Hagenauer, 2004). However, the need is felt to understand the indirect relationship and must be effectively tested too. There is a need to make the employee safe in respect of recognizing the fact that their care in terms of medical safety and protection will leads to emancipation of their well being and development.
The Romanian workforce were also exploited by providing under training, unfair wages etc. There are many companies in UK which are indulging into travel, tourism and hospitality. The another problem faced by them was that this sector is seasonal in nature and people were engaged in it for part time. They were deteriorated in other way round too. It has been evidenced that in respect to the benefits too, employees were not entitled to the equal benefits. And thus migrants workforce were treated unequally and insignificantly.
Industrial Relations are considered as very important aspect of understanding specially when the global economy is studied. As stated by Klikauer (2002) about the significance the IR in the global economy. However, there were many authors who had criticized with the fact that industrial relationship shape between market and social force and thus forms three main actors of IR namely, the union, the state, and employers who are necessarily required to be taken very effectively (Klikauer, 2002).
Workplace stress need to be minimized which is evidence from the case of Romania where the employees were highly frustrated with the same. Although, it was fact in spite of identifying that EU in UK exist with the complete adherence of laws and regulations but still the problem is hard to minimize. Later a changes for good took a revolution and with the favorable efforts, the efforts are made to manage the work at the work place instead of exploiting the labor. Recently, it has been evidenced in UK where annual Focus on Services for Injury Victims survey reflected that the number of new personal harm claims taken by unions was slender down on the 2000 figures but work-related stress cases rise. Work-related stress cases (many involving accusations against employers of unmanageable workloads) brought by unions on sake of their associates increased twelve fold, with 6,428 new 640.
In light of improvements and improvements made by the UK Court for serving the purpose of employee benefit and their rights stated some clarifications on the rights and responsibilities of both employees and employers in dealing with stress at work and the fixing of compensation levels. However, there evidenced some of the ways by which reduction has been provided to the earlier compensation payments made in favor of employer's organization and the Trade Union Congress. Furthermore, the fact has been reveled from the analysis of the European Working Conditions Survey in 2005 about the change in direction. It has turned into a shape of strong link between the work intensity of the labor and their working quality of balancing life. However, the implications have not shown the clear pictures yet and the mechanism too have solved much easily.
These are some of the aspects which are significantly considered in respect to hospitality industry of UK. By taking into consideration the scenario that was happened 2000 – 2007, various aspects have been came across. It has been estimated that principles of International Labor Organization should be well acknowledged to all the labor. They must be aware about the fact that this framework is in favor of serving their purpose of working hours and training considerations. Moreover, with the help of this study on exploitation of Romanians workers in hospitality industry in London between 2000 to 2007, various aspects have been understood.
The gap has been identified that with such a big workforce who possess the effective skill and ability to work on ethics basis and on less of wages, the exploitation is made. In accordance with the subject where the workplace exploitation is taken, it has been considered that aspects such as working conditions, illegal way of harassment, unfair wages etc are studied but the research on the subject to analyze the gap by which Romanian are exploited have never been undertaken (Pines and Meyer, 2005). It has been made more effective by taking hospitality sector with the fact that UK possess the largest sector in respect of travel and tourism.
In a nutshell, it can be concluded that the purpose of workforce exploitation in light of workplace can be improved by taking several actions. It is made by effectively carried on by the process of workplace motivation, considering the aspect of employee equality, reduction in discrimination, fair wages, equal training opportunities, ways of providing fair and equal job position according to the skill and requirement etc. In UK, it has been evidenced that tourism is the growing sector where a huge demand of the workers is required. The nation should identify the fact that with the availability of diverse workforce, the hospitality industry would be beneficial in many ways.
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