Public health is a field which is mainly concerned with the providing effective care services so that positive health outcomes are produced in health and social care sector (Atrash and Carpentier, 2012). It helps in increasing life expectancy by delivering best quality health-care facilities to all the individuals in UK. It has been generally noted that due to change in lifestyle and other factors, many diseases have been prevalent in recent times. In order to stop the epidemics of all those disease, various healthcare organisations have developed effective strategies so that they are able to enhance health outcomes of all the citizens who are residing in UK (Chowell and Nishiura, 2014). Different healthcare facilities such as appropriate treatment and diagnosis are given to all the patients who are suffering from various infectious as well as non-infectious diseases.
Different roles of healthcare department at all the levels will be discussed which are helpful in treating both infections as well as non-infectious diseases in UK. Further it will also focus on HIV/AIDS and breast cancer that is most prevalent in UK.
UNICEF, Department of Health, Public Health England and Local Authorities.Many healthcare organisations and agencies have come into existence which are successful in identifying health related issues in UK (Deeks, Lewin and Havlir, 2013). They are generally operated on national, international and local levels so that they are able to provide healthcare services to all the individuals in UK. Roles of some common health organisations are discussed below.
Epidemiology is briefly defined as adopting methods which can successfully determine major reasons behind the prevalence of different disease that are present in UK. Different types of approaches have been taken into account so that dreadful diseases such as HIV/AIDS and Breast-cancer can be effectively minimized (Khatib, Yusuf and Mente, 2014). Epidemiological data table for HIV/AIDS and Breast Cancer has been given in the below table.
|Country||People Infected with HIV/AIDS||Adults
|Females with HIV/AIDS||Children with HIV/AIDS||AIDS deaths|
Based on the above table it can be concluded that more than 35 million citizens of UK are prone to HIV/AIDS which has contributed to more than 17% of the total population of UK.
It is very necessary to adopt various strategies and approaches so that various health organisations are able to control the spread of both HIV/AIDS and Breast cancer in effective manner. They have been described below.
Current priorities and approaches have been incorporated in health and social care sectors so that people suffering from breast cancer and HIV/AIDS can be addressed effectively. Current priorities and approaches have been discussed below.
Disease prevention is one of the primary methods that can help in reducing the spread of diseases to a higher extent (Dowdle and Hopkins, 2014). According to the research it has been stated that different reasons are responsible for developing life-threatening diseases such as breast cancer and HIV/AIDS in UK. These factors can be physical, social-economic, behavioural and mental factors that have contributed in increase of different types of diseases.
It is very necessary to provide treatment to all the individuals who are suffering from HIV/AIDS and breast cancer in UK (Engstrom and et.al, 2013). If they are not given proper treatment then their condition may deteriorate to a greater level. Various types of treatments for AIDS such as anti-retro viral injections, vaccinations and other medications can be provided. Treating al the illness related to viral infections is very important because infections caused due to virus are communicable.
This type of care is provided to only those individuals who are not able to respond to various medication and treatments which are given to them. This care has been differentiated from normal care which is given in various healthcare organisations (Chandola, 2012). Palliative care is given in cases where further recovery from the patient is not expected in any case. For example HIV/AIDS and breast cancer.
If a person is suffering from HIV/AIDS and cancer then the prevalence of these disease can be related to activities and circumstances which happened in specific period of time.
By determining the ratio of people infected with AIDS/HIV and breast cancer, the prevalence for a particular disease can be calculated (Conron and et.al, 2012). As many individuals in UK are infected with both the disease it is very necessary for all the local and national healthcare organisation to strive for providing better healthcare services to them so that the cases of these diseases are reduced to a larger extent. With the help of prevalence of these disease it is helpful in developing effective health plans and strategies so that health outcomes in positive way are achieved.
When any healthcare setting implements various approaches and strategies for the improvement of health of patients then they consider the prevalence rate of particular disease. This data is beneficial for all the health organisations (Green and et.al, 2013). Areas which demand more attention and care are addressed on priority basis so that signs and symptoms of various illness is reduced.Positive health outcomes will only be attained when effective care services to all the patients who are suffering from breast cancer and HIV/AIDS.
This also helps in assessing the needs and requirements at individual basis so that effective medical assistance can be provided to them (Burgel, Gillen and White, 2012).
The way in which a person adapts to different types of lifestyles plays a very important role on various future needs of an individual. It also produces impact on person's personal and professional life to a higher extent. Major impact of changes in lifestyles have been discussed below.
As breast cancer and HIV/AIDS are the most commonly spread disease in UK it is very necessary to determine main causes which lead to increase in these types of diseases (Atrash and Carpentier, 2012).
For promoting health and well-being for people living in Haringey London borough it is very important to set certain health and well-being priorities that can be addressed effectively. Various health and well-being priorities are discussed below
According to a survey conducted in Haringey borough of London it has been noticed that people living in that borough are rapidly turning obese and by the end of 2050, more than 60% men and 50% of women will be obese (Deeks, Lewin and Havlir, 2013).It has also been reported that due to obesity many people will also suffer from various diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes with long term conditions. It is a major issue of concern because in upcoming years many children at school will experience bullying due to abnormal weight.
To reduce down obesity in Haringey it is very necessary to provide environment and facilities that can be adopted by all the people so that they do not suffer from obesity in later stages of life (Drummond, Sculpher and Torrance, 2015).Another health priority is increasing health life expectancy in Haringey so that mortality rate due to various disease is reduced. Few reasons which have contributed towards decrease in life expectancy is long term health implications such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and other respiratory diseases.
For increasing the life expectancy years it is very necessary to ensure that all the type of integrated services are accessible to all the citizens of that borough (Geist, 2013).
It is very necessary to ensure that all the healthcare organisation adopt proper strategies so that quality care services are provided to all the patients and service users in UK. Maintenance of personal hygiene and sanitation is very important because if it is not maintained properly than it can lead to many infectious and non-communicable disease (Khatib, Yusuf and Mente, 2014). Further all the healthcare professionals should create an awareness about different health measure that should be taken in order to support healthy environment. Healthy environment will automatically enhance healthy behaviour which is beneficial for maintaining a healthy life. All the health organisations should be clean and well furnished so that patients are comfortable in getting treated in a particular healthcare setting.
If proper hygiene and sanitation is not maintained then it will effect the quality of services that is given to patients in healthcare settings. Further there are many health issues that are existing in UK which are necessary to be solved (Mehta, Croudace and Davies, 2015)(. If they are not solved then major health problems can take place. Communication issues are also one of the major problems that needs to be solved when addressing various healthcare problems in an organisation. If proper communication is not maintained in the organisation then service users and other patients will not be able to communicate their problems to healthcare professionals. In such cases it becomes difficult for health professionals to fulfil the needs and requirements of all the patients. Hence it is very necessary to develop proper communication so that quality care is given to them.
Changes are very necessary to be brought because it helps in improving healthcare services which are provided to all the patients in health care settings Osterholm and Moore, 2016). Various changes are listed below.
There should be alterations in behaviour which is exerted by all the health professionals so they are able to understand all the patient in a better way.
It is generally noted that with growing age there are many diseases which are caused to individuals hence it is the responsibility of all the healthcare organisation to develop effective strategies that is able to address various health related issues (Rice, Elford and Delpech, 2013) .Proper environment should be maintained in the healthcare settings so that patients are encouraged to get treated in particular hospital and health settings. If proper environment is not maintained then the chances of encountering hospital based infections increases.
Waste evacuation techniques should also be adopted by all the hospitals so that they are able to dispose off all the waste properly. If waste is not disposed off properly then it can cause harmful infections and diseases to both service users and service providers.Communication gap is also a serious problem which creates and hindrance in accessing healthcare services by services users (Walker, 2014). Hence proper training should be provided to all the healthcare professionals so that they are able to communicate effectively with patients. This will help in meeting the medical demands and requirements of all the patients and service users.
Breast cancer screening programmes are conducted in UK so that they are able to identify number of cases that are suffering from breast cancer in UK.
Basically a screening test is conducted by two different mammograms of each breast so that both breast can be analysed at the same time (Dowdle and Hopkins, 2014).
This test is effective in determining whether a person is suffering from breast cancer or not. Generally the results are declared in two weeks of diagnosis but in some complicated cases it may take more than 2 weeks.Due to various benefits of screening test all the females are encouraged to undergo screening test so that if they are suffering from cancer or fibroid they get easily detected.
It not only has benefits but it also has many disadvantages. In many cases, the screening of breast do not detect the presence of breast cancer which produces life threatening consequences at later stages of life (Breast Cancer Screening programmes, 2015).Similarly in many cases it is noticed that, screening test detects cancer in some individuals even if they are not suffering from it. This leads to trauma and depression in many cases.One of the most common side effects of breast cancer screening is that the rays which are emitted through the machine increases the chances of producing breast cancer in 7 out of 1000 females (Engstrom and et.al, 2013).
The overall report is based on role of public health in UK. It has covered various aspects of role of public health. The epidemiological data of two different diseases where studies in the report which gave a brief about the number of people who are infected with the disease. Further it also focussed on effectiveness of different health related strategies that are implemented in order to improve the health and well-being of all the individuals in UK. In the last section of the file , breast screening test was analysed which is used to detect cancer in patients of UK. Changes that have been brought in all the health care organisation foe the betterment of all the patients have also been discussed in the file. It will help in providing better care services to all the service users.