Public Health

Sample Report On Public Health Isssues

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Introduction

Public health is a field which is mainly concerned with the providing effective care services so that positive health outcomes are produced in health and social care sector (Atrash and Carpentier, 2012). It helps in increasing life expectancy by delivering best quality health-care facilities to all the individuals in UK. It has been generally noted that due to change in lifestyle and other factors, many diseases have been prevalent in recent times. In order to stop the epidemics of all those disease, various healthcare organisations have developed effective strategies so that they are able to enhance health outcomes of all the citizens who are residing in UK (Chowell and Nishiura, 2014). Different healthcare facilities such as appropriate treatment and diagnosis are given to all the patients who are suffering from various infectious as well as non-infectious diseases.

Different roles of healthcare department at all the levels will be discussed which are helpful in treating both infections as well as non-infectious diseases in UK. Further it will also focus on HIV/AIDS and breast cancer that is most prevalent in UK.

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1.1 Role of various health organisations such as  World Health Organisation, European Union,

UNICEF, Department of Health, Public Health England and Local Authorities.Many healthcare organisations and agencies have come into existence which are successful in identifying health related issues in UK (Deeks, Lewin and Havlir, 2013). They are generally operated on national, international and local levels so that they are able to provide healthcare services to all the individuals in UK. Roles of some common health organisations are discussed below.

  • The main role of W.H.O is to provide medical assistance and care to all the patients during a infectious outbreak in UK. They also focus on reviewing reasons which are responsible for causing the spread of disease to a greater extent.
  • The main function of European Union in public health is to provide protection and safety to all the individuals with the help of various policies and activities (Drummond, Sculpher and Torrance, 2015).
  • Its primary aim is to improve public through preventing spread of different diseases and threats to health of  people in UK.
  • The actions exhibited by European Union serves by complementing all the national health policies.
  • The main role of UNICEF is in advancing children and maternal health so that they are able to promote health and well-being of all the individuals in a better way (Geist, 2013). On of the major aim of UNICEF is to deliver effective care service to all the children and women so that improved health outcomes are achieved.  
  • Public Health England aims at improving and protecting nation's health from different types of hazards and risk related to environment. It mainly employs more than 5'500 staff members which are able to address health inequalities and issues.

1.2 Epidemiology of HIV and Breast Cancer in UK

Epidemiology is briefly defined as adopting methods which can successfully determine major reasons behind the prevalence of different disease that are present in UK.  Different types of approaches have been taken into account so that dreadful diseases such as HIV/AIDS and Breast-cancer can be effectively minimized (Khatib, Yusuf and Mente, 2014). Epidemiological data table for HIV/AIDS and Breast Cancer has been given in the below table.

Country People Infected with HIV/AIDS Adults
(16-50)
Prevalence      %   

Females with HIV/AIDS Children with HIV/AIDS AIDS deaths

United Kingdom

3550000

17.00% 1750050 265000 155000

Based on the above table it can be concluded that more than 35 million citizens of UK are prone to HIV/AIDS  which has contributed to more than 17% of the total population of UK.

  • Along with HIV/AIDS overall case of more than 11 million females have been diagnosed with breast cancer in 2015 and overall mortality rate of breast cancer in the nation is more than 9% (Mehta, Croudace and Davies, 2015).
  • After other African nations, United Kingdom has been the second largest country which has recorded maximum number of breast cancer and HIV/AIDS cases in the year 2015.
  • Not only adults are infected with AIDS but more than 6% of adolescents are also reported to be suffering from this diseases. This percentage has increased from 3.5% in 2012 to 6% in 2015 (Osterholm and Moore, 2016).

1.3 Effectiveness of different approaches and strategies used to control the incidence of HIV/AIDS and  Breast cancer

It is very necessary to adopt various strategies and approaches so that various health organisations are able to control the spread of both HIV/AIDS and Breast cancer in effective manner. They have been described below.

  • Without determining the exact cause behind the spread of disease it is very difficult to control the epidemics. Hence it is very necessary to identify the causes so that different strategies for controlling the illness can be implemented (Rice, Elford and Delpech, 2013)
  • Generally it has been noticed that many people in UK resides in slum and rural areas and they are unable to get proper healthcare services. In order to provide them all the medical care and assistance it is very necessary for all the healthcare organisations to develop camps and free medical services.
  • In case of outbreak of any disease it is the duty of local healthcare officials to ensure that majority of the population is not infected b y the disease (Viner, Ozer and Currie, 2012). In order to control the spread of disease it is necessary to take care of proper hygiene and sanitation so that health of individuals of UK is not compromised.
  • In order to provide better services to all the people of UK, the health care organisation should organise training and medical camps so that they are able to create awareness about HIV/AIDS and breast cancer among people. This will help in adopting ways which can prevent the cause of these disease in UK (Walker, 2014).

2.1  Determine current priorities and approaches to provision of services for people HIV and  Breast

Cancer

Current priorities and approaches have been incorporated in health and social care sectors so that people suffering from breast cancer and HIV/AIDS can be addressed effectively. Current priorities and approaches have been discussed below.

Prevention of disease

Disease prevention is one of the primary methods that can help in reducing the spread of diseases to a higher extent (Dowdle and Hopkins, 2014). According to the research it has been stated that different reasons are responsible for developing life-threatening diseases such as breast cancer and HIV/AIDS in UK. These factors can be physical, social-economic, behavioural and mental factors that have contributed in increase of different types of diseases.

Providing treatment

It is very necessary to provide treatment to all the individuals who are suffering from  HIV/AIDS and breast cancer in UK (Engstrom and et.al, 2013). If they are not given proper treatment then their condition may deteriorate to a greater level. Various types of treatments for AIDS such as anti-retro viral injections, vaccinations and other medications can be provided. Treating al the illness related to viral infections is very important because infections caused due to virus are communicable.

Palliative care

This type of care is provided to only those individuals who are not able to respond to various medication and treatments which are given to them. This care has been differentiated from normal care which is given in various healthcare organisations (Chandola, 2012). Palliative care is given in cases where further recovery from the patient is not expected in any case. For example HIV/AIDS and breast cancer.

2.2 Relationship between the prevalence of HIV and Breast cancer in relation to the requirements of health services to support individuals HIV and Breast cancer  illness

If a person is suffering from HIV/AIDS and cancer then the prevalence of these disease can be related to activities and circumstances which happened in specific period of time.
By determining the ratio of people infected with AIDS/HIV and breast cancer, the prevalence for a particular disease can be calculated (Conron and et.al, 2012). As many individuals in UK are infected with both the disease it is very necessary for all the local and national healthcare organisation to strive for providing better healthcare services to them so that the cases of these diseases are reduced to a larger extent. With the help of prevalence of these disease it is helpful in developing effective health plans and strategies so that health outcomes in positive way are achieved.
When any healthcare setting implements various approaches and strategies for the improvement of health of patients then they consider the prevalence rate of particular disease. This data is beneficial for all the health organisations (Green and et.al, 2013). Areas which demand more attention and care are addressed on priority basis so that signs and symptoms of various illness is reduced.Positive health outcomes will only be attained when effective care services to all the patients who are suffering from breast cancer and HIV/AIDS.
This also helps in assessing   the needs and requirements at individual basis so that effective medical assistance can be provided to them (Burgel, Gillen and White, 2012).

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2.3 Impact of lifestyle choices such as diet, exercise and substance use have on future needs for health and social care services.

The way in which a person adapts to different types of lifestyles plays a very important role on various future needs of an individual. It also produces impact on person's personal and professional life to a higher extent. Major impact of changes in lifestyles have been discussed below.

As breast cancer and HIV/AIDS are the most commonly spread disease in UK it is very necessary to determine main causes which lead to increase in these types of diseases (Atrash and Carpentier, 2012).

  • According to survey it was noticed that smoking of tobacco has been one of the major reasons for the development of various types of cancer in individuals. With change in lifestyle many trends and habits changes that leads to occurrence of different diseases.
  • Incorporation of Unhealthy eating habits is also one of the major reasons that has contributed towards increase in breast-cancer and HIV/AIDS rare in UK.
  •  It is also very necessary for all patients and other service users to provide basic information and awareness about these disease so that they are able to adapt lifestyles that can reduce down the symptoms and signs to minimum (Chowell and Nishiura, 2014).
  • 17% of individuals are reported to be infected with AIDS in 2015. One of the major reasons of this disease is that individuals do not adopt effective strategies for governing sexual life which causes viral infection in people.
  • Hence it is very necessary to set proper lifestyles and trends that can help all the citizens in reducing down various infections and diseases such as breast cancer and HIV/AIDS.

3.1. Assess the health and well-being priorities for people living in a London borough

For promoting health and well-being for people living in Haringey London borough it is very important to set certain health and well-being priorities that can be addressed effectively. Various health and well-being priorities are discussed below

According to a survey conducted in Haringey borough of London it has been noticed that people living in that borough are rapidly turning obese and by the end of 2050, more than 60% men and 50% of women will be obese (Deeks, Lewin and Havlir, 2013).It has also been reported that due to obesity many people will also suffer from various diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes with long term conditions. It is a major issue of concern because in upcoming years many children at school will experience bullying due to abnormal weight.
To reduce down obesity in Haringey it is very necessary to provide environment and facilities that can be adopted by all the people so that they do not suffer from obesity in later stages of life (Drummond, Sculpher and Torrance, 2015).Another health priority is increasing health life expectancy in Haringey so that mortality rate due to various disease is reduced. Few reasons which have contributed towards decrease in life expectancy is long term health implications such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and other respiratory diseases.

For increasing the life expectancy years it is very necessary to ensure that all the type of integrated services are accessible to all the citizens of that borough (Geist, 2013).

3.2 Effectiveness of strategies, systems and policies in health and social care

 It is very necessary to ensure that all the healthcare organisation adopt proper strategies so that quality care services are provided to all the patients and service users in UK. Maintenance of personal hygiene and sanitation is very important because if it is not maintained properly than it can lead to many infectious and non-communicable disease (Khatib, Yusuf and Mente, 2014). Further all the healthcare professionals should create an awareness about different health measure that should be taken in order to support healthy environment. Healthy environment will automatically enhance healthy behaviour which is beneficial for maintaining a healthy life. All the health organisations should be clean and well furnished so that patients are comfortable in getting treated in a particular healthcare setting.

If proper hygiene and sanitation is not maintained then it will effect the quality of services that is given to patients in healthcare settings. Further there are many health issues that are existing in UK which are necessary to be solved (Mehta, Croudace and Davies, 2015)(. If they are not solved then major health problems can take place. Communication issues are also one of the major problems that needs to be solved when addressing various healthcare problems in an organisation. If proper communication is not maintained in the organisation then service users and other patients will not be able to communicate their problems to healthcare professionals. In such cases it becomes difficult for health professionals to fulfil the needs and requirements of all the patients. Hence it is very necessary to develop proper communication so that quality care is given to them.

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3.3  Changes that could be made to improve the health and well-being of individuals in a Health and

Social Care setting

Changes are very necessary to be brought because it helps in improving healthcare services which are provided to all the patients in health care settings Osterholm and Moore, 2016). Various changes are listed below.

There should be alterations in behaviour which is exerted by all the health professionals so they are able to understand all the patient in a better way.

It is generally noted that with growing age there are many diseases which are caused to individuals hence it is the responsibility of all the healthcare organisation to develop effective strategies that is able to address various health related issues (Rice, Elford and Delpech, 2013) .Proper environment should be maintained in the healthcare settings so that patients are encouraged to get treated in particular hospital and health settings. If proper environment is not maintained then the chances of encountering hospital based infections increases.
Waste evacuation techniques should also be adopted by all the hospitals so that they are able to dispose off all the waste properly. If waste is not disposed off properly then it can cause harmful infections and diseases to both service users and service providers.Communication gap is also a serious problem which creates and hindrance in accessing healthcare services by services users (Walker, 2014). Hence proper training should be provided to all the healthcare professionals so that they are able to communicate effectively with patients. This will help in meeting the medical demands and requirements of all the patients and service users.

3.4 Breast cancer screening programme in UK

Breast cancer screening programmes are conducted in UK so that they are able to identify number of cases that are suffering from breast cancer in UK.

Basically a screening test is conducted by two different mammograms of each breast so that both breast can be analysed at the same time (Dowdle and Hopkins, 2014).
This test is effective in determining whether a person is suffering from breast cancer or not. Generally the results are declared in two weeks of diagnosis but in some complicated cases it may take more than 2 weeks.Due to various benefits of screening test all the females are encouraged to undergo screening test so that if they are suffering from cancer or fibroid they get easily detected.
It not only has benefits but it  also has many disadvantages. In many cases, the screening of breast do not detect the presence of breast cancer which produces life threatening consequences at later stages of life (Breast Cancer Screening programmes, 2015).Similarly in many cases it is noticed that, screening test detects cancer in some individuals even if they are not suffering from it. This leads to trauma and depression in many cases.One of the most common side effects of breast cancer screening is that the rays which are emitted through the machine increases the chances of producing breast cancer  in 7 out of 1000 females (Engstrom and et.al, 2013).

Conclusion

The overall report is based on role of public health in UK. It has covered various aspects of role of public health. The epidemiological data of two different diseases where studies in the report which gave a brief about the number of people who are infected with the disease. Further it also focussed on effectiveness of different health related strategies that are implemented in order to improve the health and well-being of all the individuals in UK. In the last section of the file , breast screening test was analysed which is used to detect cancer in patients of UK. Changes that have been brought in all the health care organisation foe the betterment of all the patients have also been discussed in the file.  It will help in providing better care services to all the service users.

References

  • Atrash, K. and Carpentier, R., 2012. The evolving role of public health in the delivery of health care. Revista brasileira de crescimento e desenvolvimento humano.
  • Chowell, G. and Nishiura, H., 2014. Transmission dynamics and control of Ebola virus disease (EVD): a review. BMC medicine.
  • Deeks, S.G., Lewin, S.R. and Havlir, D.V., 2013. The end of AIDS: HIV infection as a chronic disease.
  • Drummond, M.F., Sculpher, M.J. and Torrance, G.W., 2015. Methods for the economic evaluation of health care programmes. Oxford university press.
  • Geist, V., 2013. Life strategies, human evolution, environmental design: toward a biological theory of health. Springer Science & Business Media.
  • Khatib, R., Yusuf, S. and Mente, A., 2014. Impact of lifestyle factors on fracture risk in older patients with cardiovascular disease: a prospective cohort study of 26,335 individuals from 40 countries. Age and ageing.
  • Mehta, N., Croudace, T. and Davies, D.S.C., 2015. Public mental health: evidenced-based priorities. The Lancet.
  • Osterholm, M. and Moore, K., 2016. The Ebola Vaccine Team B: a model for promoting the rapid development of medical countermeasures for emerging infectious disease threats. The Lancet Infectious Diseases
  • Rice, B., Elford, J. and Delpech, V., 2013. Decreasing incidence of tuberculosis among heterosexuals living with diagnosed HIV in England and Wales. 
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