Physiological principles

Analysis report on physiological principles

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Introduction to Physiological Principles

The term physiology is a study to understand the functioning of living things and the principles of physiology are related to human bodies. The human anatomy is the science of human body structure. In this context, anatomy is categorized in two parts such as microscopic and macroscopic anatomy. The macroscopic deals with large body parts of human body whereas microscopic is the study of cellular structure. The present report will help to understand the concept about physiological principles for social care. The report also includes the concept related to structure and functioning of human body. Further, it also focuses on the relationship between body functioning and relevant detailed anatomy and physiology. The present report includes the planning and functioning of care for individuals.


1.1 Main anatomical features of human body

The anatomical features of human body are combination of various systems. For doing daily activities, human body requires different types of systems like nervous, skeletal and digestive. The anatomical features of human body are as follows:

Skeletal structure

The components of this system are bones, cartilages and joints etc. It provides frame and shape to human body and it also includes 206 bones. The skeletal structure is divided in two parts such as appendicular and axial skeleton. In this context, appendicular skeleton is formed by pelvis, pectorial girdle and upper and lower limbs bones. The axial skeleton is formed by skull, rib cages, other bones and vertebral column

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Gross bodily features

The body of human includes parts such as neck, head, hands, trunk part and legs. The trunk part involves abdomen and thorax of human body and few organs are also housed within trunk segment such as upper chest part of human body includes lungs and heart which are securely covered by rib cage.

Body organs

The body organs are collection of various tissues which are also formed by millions of cells. The body of human includes 78 types of organs which are different from each other according to size, function and actions. If the size and weight are considered then it is evaluated that skin of human body is the largest organ. There are various types of systems which are present in human body such as reproductive, urinary, nervous, respiratory and endocrine system

Soft tissues

In human body, soft tissues connect, support and surround organs and structure. It includes the tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, skin and muscles etc

1.2 Body system interact to ensure the body functions and grows

Every system of human body plays an important function and some systems are related with the other systems. The interaction between systems is defined below:

Sensory and nervous system

The sensory system is a part of nervous system in human body and it is also responsible for processing the sensory type of information. This system involves the sensory receptors and neural pathways. The function of sensory receptor is to receive sensory information such as fragrance, smell, cold or hot and further this information is sent to the nervous system (Aveyard and Sharp, 2013). On any type of stimuli, nervous system gives reaction on the action. For example, human parts like hands touch the hot bowl then in this situation brain sends the signals to remove hands from the hot surface. The interaction between sensory and nervous system occurs.

Excretory and digestive system

The function of digestive system is to break down the food in small segments and further it also extracts the nutrients from food to gain energy. In the next step, the function of excretory system is to remove waste part from the human body (Combrinck-Graham 2013). In this whole process, liver is linked to both excretory and digestive system because it receives blood from intestine and separates the wastage before blood is again pumps back to body parts (Bircher and Kuruvilla, 2014). This process releases the bile which further includes in stool, this stool is eliminated from body at the time of excretion. In this whole process, epiglottis also plays a vital role because it stops the food from going into lungs.


2.1 Normal body responses to everyday activities

The everyday activities of human body are doing physical activity, eating or sudden shock etc. and on these activities, normally body givers some responses. The normal body response to everyday activities are as follows:

Sudden shock

The term shock is basically a defense response for the sudden activity. In this condition, blood pressure in human body suddenly falls and in science this situation is also defined as a physical shutdown. The three types of shocks are such as hypovolemic, neurogenic and cardiogenic shock. In shock situation, body gives response by constricting the blood vessels of both the feet and hands and at this time it y also releases few chemical hormones that could reverse the initial action of the body. In this condition, blood pressure also falls

Physical activity

In doing physical activity, some changes also occur in body organs like heart, lungs, brain and muscles etc. The physical activities are beneficial for humans because it normalizes glucose, leptin and insuline level. Further, it is also evaluated that strenuous physical activities reduces the chances of chronic diseases. For example, if the person is running then in this situation heart rate increases and his body requires more oxygen


It is a normal activity but eating too much quickly causes stomach gas, digestive problems and bloating in humans. Eating too quickly reduces the portion of enzymes and saliva. In this condition, the human also intake air with meal and this is a reason of stomach gas and bloating

2.2 Body responses by cellular and tissue structure and physiology

In human body, there are several cell types such as organ, system, organs and tissues etc. The elementary type tissue includes few categories like epithelial, muscles, nervous and connective and from all these tissues of muscles are very important in human body. The reason behind this is that muscles tissues supports in doing several movements. In this context, there are basically there types of muscle tissues present in human body such as smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and muscle of skeletal (Michael, Labbé and Kuczmierczyk, 2013). In humans, uninhibited activities may damage the tissues, physiologically and body cells. The cellular level structure produces energy for specific organ or tissue because it is a main energy source in the body. With the help of cellular respiration process, energy is generated . In this process, neurons which comes from meal joints with oxygen atoms. In body, tissues are made of collection of many cells which shares similar function (Daly, Batchelo and Watt,2013). Further, combination of two or more tissues form an organ. While a human is running then in this condition, muscles uses both ATP and glucose for the purpose of movement and contraction. At the time of physical activity, body requires moreoxygen which results that rate of human breathing also increases. In this condition, heart starts to pump more to supply blood to many muscles and in this process heart rate increases as well. When the blood flows in fast speed then it is beneficial for the brain because this process promotes development of new brain cells

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2.3 Body coordinates its internal activities

The term body coordination includes adjustments of body systems, organs and their internal activities. In human activities, the nervous system controls the moments of body and the nerve tissues are involved in controlling and coordinating the activities. If cells wants to remain healthy and alive then it is important that composition related to tissues fluid remain constant in nature (Bircher and Kuruvilla, 2014). In the coordination process, many organs works together to process the information in this context when information is received from external environment and according to the nature of stimuli, appropriate response are given back. In human body, there are two types of coordination system like endocrine and nervous system (Ashcroft, Dawson and McMillan, 2007). In this context, nervous system basically regulates the responses and activities of human body. Further, endocrine system, regulates and coordinates the functions of body by the presence of hormones. This system includes glands related to endocrine like gonads, thyroid, pancreas and parathyroid etc. All these glands produces chemicals known as hormones and they act as a messenger, so, they are transported trough out body with the help of blood.


3.1 Recording and use of routine measures in health and social care

In respect to health and social care, it is essentially required to measure the record of diagnosis in the routine basis.. Records are related to following factors like blood pressure, eyesight, respiration rate, weight, height, pulse and urine. Records are maintained because it holds the complete history information about disease, like in the initial stage what symptoms are occurred and what type of medical drugs were prescribed by doctors in the past. All these types of information are recorded. The routine measures are recorded such as:
Blood pressure- To measure the blood pressure, sphygmo manometer is used. In this, blood pressure of human is recorded in dual numbers such as diastolic and systolic pressure. At the time of measurement, health care professionals firstly measures the systolic pressure and after that they measure the diastolic pressure in the patients.

Temperature- To measure the temperature of patient, thermometer is used as a tool. Which describes the current state of temperature

By recording all health care details, health care professionals could use that data to predict the nature of sickness. With the help of records, all physiological changes with the age are evaluated. In health and social care, there are basically four types of routine measure are present such as blood pressure, pulse rate, respiration frequency and body temperature. So, it is clear that while doing the measures in the routine manner, height, BMI, food consumption and weight of patients are considered firstly.

3.2 Routine measures provide information about body functioning

With the help of routine measure, it is easy for the individuals to understand the causes and its impact on the body system. At the time of measuring, like patient's body temperature rise or fall then it describes that something is going wrong in body It also defines that its related system are not functioning in the positive manner. At the time measurement, when body temperature suddenly increases like 99' C then it indicates that person is suffering from severe fever. If in case respiratory patterns or rate fluctuates like it increases more than 24 or falls to 11 then in this situation person should consult the health care professionals. help o By measuring the pulse rate, anyone could understand the rhythm of their hearty beat (10 Principles of Exercise Physiology, 2010). Without of any reason, if the pulse rate rises or falls then in this condition person should meet the health care as as soon as possible. Sam was having the problem of blood pressure so if blood pressure rises or falls then it is also a bad condition because it is not healthy for any person. Further, the consistency and nature of stool also describes the functioning of the body. In this context, the family history, background history, nutrition and fitness status also helps to understand the causes of disease and future issues could be predicted. With the help of routine measuring, the result are evaluated like functioning of body and anatomical system

3.3 Information about body functioning may inform care planning for individuals

Basically, care plan is a type of agreement between health care professional and patient which helps in managing the health of patient on daily basis. This agreement includes the information which should be followed by the patient to improve his health. In this context, it includes the list of things which assist to avoid the cause of disease. For example, an individual is having the high blood sugar level and cholesterol level problem then in this situation that person requires special attention as compare to others because high level is not good for the health. In this context, person requires to follow some health care guidance which are prescribed by the health care professionals (Combrinck-Graham 2013). This will help to reduce dangerous risk chances related to health. Further, the care plans plays an important role in the life of patient who requires special type of medical assistance. To stay healthy , the care plans are good for every person. In order to maintain health , it is important to consider few things which are related to present and past situation at the time of creating care plan for any person. At the time of creating the care plan, it is important to interpret the result of all measurements in an accurate manner. This step is required because with the help of past records and result of measurement, health care professional could avoid things which could be harmful for the patient. If the harmful things are not avoided then there are chances of developing a new type of disease in that patient. With the time, care plans of patients should be updated because many things change in body with the age


4.1 Age may affect body structure and functioning

The structural changes happen with the increment in aging because changes occur in thoracic cage that cause the reduction of chest walls. Further, age related to the disease of osteoporosis may lead to reduction in height. In this situation, rib cage is less capable to any change like contraction or expansion at the time of breathing. The muscles which supports the breathing process becomes weaker and this process creates problem at the time of exhaling and inhaling air. With the age, the changes are witnessed in anatomical related tosuch as brain problems, spinal cord issues, reduction in neurons and brain size. In case of fatty deposit, the blood flow to the brain decreases and it also affects the arterial blood flow because it also slows down. Further, the number of receptors also reduces and myelin sheet coating on nerves cells also get lower . With aging, the skin of person also changes because the skin cells looses their collagen fiber and elasticity (Parahoo, 2014). It is clear that, when person grows older with the time their body programs faces few difficulties at the time of functioning. Few names of diseases are such as skin rashes, hyper tension, diabetes, cancer, strokes and Alzheimer etc

4.2 Impact of common disorder on body structure and functioning

Few disorders which are very common impact the body structure and its functioning. The impact are as follows:
Diseases related to cardio vascular- With age, changes also happens in physiology of cardio vascular. It creates risk of increment in disease related to coronary artery. In the older age, the blood vessels also get thickened (Coughlan, Cronin and Ryan, 2013).
Pulmonary tissues impairment- The aging factor also affects the respiratory system which includes alterations in anatomical, physiological and immunological. It also includes the reduction in the size of rib cage. The deformity of rib cages affects the lungs in process of contraction and expansion. This results in older age like they face breathing problems at the time of inhaling and exhaling the air. The age also affects the working capabilities of older people. In science, it is evaluated that after age of 30 years, 1 square foot of respiratory related membrane reduces its size. The production of stem cells also reduces which affects the epidermal cells to slow down the process of reproduction. With the changes in age of human, the composition of chemical and hormones also varies. In older age, wounds does not heal faster

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4.3 Effects of common disorder and infection to care routinely given to individuals affected by them

The patients require following types of measures which are defined as below:
Medication- At the time of creating the care plan, effective medication is required while considering the level of sugar and cholesterol. With the help of effective medication, the health of patient could be improved in an excellent manner.
Daily routine measures- In respect to older people, routine measure should be based on daily basis to check the level of body functions which includes sugar level and cholesterol level

It is important to treat the patients who are old because it requires more patience in caring roles. In treating them, respectful behavior should be considered. Along with this, appropriate nutrition values and vitamins should be given to them in timely manner (Moini, 2012). For example, a person with age of 75 years is suffering from type 2 diabetes and is also having a wound on leg. In this condition, that wound on leg would not recover or heal in a quick manner. The care takers have to give special attention to this patient and they have to take many actions related to the prevention. If the care taker will not take effective care for that patient then in this condition there are chances to operate his leg for the betterment of his health


With the help of this report, it is articulated that study of physiological principles plays an import role in science because it defines the system and functions of human body. The present report also defines the body responses towards the daily activities. The present report also helps to understand that how the human body coordinates with the internal activities. It also defines the importance of routine measures.


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