Managing and Leading People

A Sample Report on Managing and Leading People

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Introduction to Managing and Leading People

Managing and Leading People means to manage people in the organization; however, on the other hand leadership is the ability of the individual to lead and guide other people. Management involves development of the policies of an organization to help and coordinate the employees in order to achieve its goals. It refersIt refers to the people who controls and manage the organization. Morrison’s is the supermarket company in UK which is headquartered in at Braford, West Yorkshire, England. It was established by William Morrison in the year 1899. In this report, the definition of leader, manager and motivation are described. Along with this, debate on traditional and contemporary leadership style is also carried out. Further, the model of motivation and role of administrator are defined. Moreover, the line manager efforts in increasing the organizational effectiveness are mentioned.

Part A

a) Definition and Different Roles of Leader and Manager

Leader is the person who has the right to guide the people for their work. A leader is the one to whom all people follows and he/she is the representative of the company. The main role of leader is to govern the saying of the follower. According to Bloxham, Ehrich and Iyer, leader must have the ability to admit so that he/she can learn lesson from his/her mistakes. In addition to that, he must have good knowledge of his strengths, weakness, values, skills etc. According to the views of Charlwood and Hoque, the leader must have strong knowledge of right things and can be able to take quick decision. From As per the saying of Cho and Jimerson, leader has strong belief and self confidence on the activities he is doing in order to meet his objectives and has good inter-personal skills so that he can interact with others and prepared to take the responsibilities. According to Dworzynski and the leader must praise others where appropriate, gives helpful feedback and encourage his employees for giving their best performance. The writer want to say that leader must posses the skills which can help him in making effective interaction among the employees so that good environment among workers can be maintained.

Manager is the person who manages the company or the person who is responsible for controlling an organization. The role of administrator is to handle the employees of the department which is under control of him/her. According to Freshwater,Thethe organizer has to motivate, coordinate the activities of the workers. Additionally, the person who manages everything collects information from different sources and passes the privileged information to their workers, superiors who have no access to it.

From the view point of Novak, Armstrong and Browne,The, the administrator must be a good negotiator. He/she has to negotiate with workers, negotiators, competitors when the organization passes through development and undergone changes.From As per the saying of Oshaug.The the person who is managing the employees should to be a good leader who encourages the mission and vision of an organization to stakeholders, employees, customers etc. Administrator has the responsibility to give respect to others and give permission to the person to lead discussions and meetings. The sSimilarity between the saying of above two writers is that the person who is managing all activities must be a good negotiator as well as he has to be a good leader which makes him extraordinary to handle the challenges and maintain the best performance of the employees by motivating them. The difference lies in the fact that when the manager must be multitalented,so multitalented, so that he can control its employees efficiently so that employee's interaction with his leader can be improved.

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b) Debate on Traditional and Contemporary Leadership Style

According to Smits and Bowden, traditional leadership style gives the power to the specified head in placing the culture of the past. The characteristics of traditional leadership style is that leaders are listened because of the personal loyalty of their position. They are seen as having power and control because the position held before them have control and power. From the view point of Wilkinson, traditional leadership style are changing into collaborative approach that encourages the employees and deletes the relation of boss and the worker. According to Freshwater, has included many theories such as trait approaches, leadership style approach, contingency approach etc. The autocratic model defines that all the major decisions are taken by the company authority and the employees are not involves in it. The decision are made from their ideas and the judgement. The employees have to work according to the decision given by their superiors.

From the view point of Goetsch and Davis, Contemporary leadership styles are the styles that must fulfil the people needs of people. These needs must be fulfilled on demand. According to Mmbeau and Tomlinson, the visionary style is suitable when the organization requires a new way. The people are free to experiment new things, innovate them and allowed to take risks. According to Moran,cCoaching helps the team in personal development, also helps in bringing improvement in their performance. From the saying of Novak, Armstrong and Browne, Democratic style drives the knowledge and skills of the people. It helps the organization when the initiator has to take collective wisdom of the team and the organization focus is unclear. According to Oshaug (2015), Contemporary leadership style also includes the presenting approach also where sets high rules for performance enhancement. The Morrison has adopted contemporary styles so that they can give benefits and enjoyment advantages to its customers.

Traditional leadership styles includes trait model and behavioural model. The traditional leadership styles are mainly based on the control over the workers. Trait model is based on the understanding of the characteristic of the great innovators in the past. Behavioural model is based on the behaviour of the great persons. Behavioural model further describes the autocratic, democratic and laissez-faire leadership styles. From the view point of Smits, Sowden, Situational leadership is another type of traditional leadership model in which leadership is related with the follower's readiness to accept the direction'sdirections of innovators. On the other hand, contemporary leadership style includes Transactional and Transformational model.

According to Wilkinson,Transformational leadership, chiefs must have capability of bringing the significant changes which gives redefinition to the vision and mission of the people. Transactional leadership includes the transformation of rewards that is controlled by the head. Transactional leader must ensure that employees are given rewards which motivates them. The traditional model focuses on the traits, behaviour and characteristic of one leader within a group whereas the contemporary model gives space to have more than one leader at the same time.

c) Demonstration of Head Persons on Ethical Approach and its Impact on Employees Engagement.

Ethics is related to knowing and understanding of what is right thing to do. The right activity depends on the situation which may be wrong in terms of other context. The chiefs main role is to see that the employees are working on the policies made by the organization. Ethical leadership is followed in MorrisonMorrison’s where the head person is governed by respect for ethical beliefs for the safety of others. Therefore, it is related to the trust, fairness and honesty of the organization authority. The workers must have to work ethically. The ethical working of the organization helps it to prevent from the legal issues. If the company has to face to legal issue then it can be saved from any harm with the help of its ethical working.

Ethical leadership is directly influenced by the people working in its organization; hence they are crucial to adhere. EThe effective innovators always helps their employees as they are always there to help them and focus on right things. Employees of the Morrison’s always behave ethically when the importance of ethical behaviour is explained to them in unambiguous manner. Ethical leadership means to act in a manner that earns the belief of the team and encourages the workers for their best performance. There are various steps domains which depicts the importance of ethicsto maintain ethical in the realm of leadership which are as follows:

  • To model the ethical behaviour: The header must have ethical standards for his personal life so that he can treat others with respect and able to talk about difficult ethical choices.
  • Transparency in decision making and communication: The chief person has to conduct regular meetings so that employees are able to know their advice and also the employees views are welcomed for further decision making.
  • Formal ethics must be established: The employees must be motivated for ethical grey areas by creating foundational and living document. The values must be understandunderstood by the employees from all levels through regular training and conducting other activities. The company's changes must be revised and revisited for the welfare of it. Ethical standards are required to communicate to the employees in all domains.
  • Motivate all to meet ethical expectations: Employees are rewarded for their bravery and managers have to discuss the positive ethic looks as they often discuss about the right things. Therefore, for such prospect leaders are required to focus on ethical values and norms.
  • Discussion about ongoing journey of ethics: Ethics must be integrated in every activity of the company. Ethics is an ongoing journey activity and it is not a year long process as the world is continuously changing.which requires many dimensions to promote business standards.All these factors of maintaining the ethical leadership will create effective impact on the employees. The ethical working encourages the employees for giving their best. Legal issues will be less and customers attraction towards Morrison organisation increases. The disputes among the employees decreasesdisputes among the employees decrease with the help of ethical approaches.

Part B

a) Definition of Motivation

Motivation is the a theoretical aspect which is used to describe the nature and behaviour of the person. It helps the people to achieve their goals and gives the way for their actions, requirements and wishes. It is the way of encouraging the employees. It is the effort to pull action towards the work. Encouragement can help in building positive attitude towards the work or any activity performed by the employee. It helps the employee to perform best and maintain good relationship with others and create good environment around it. Encouragement increases the desire to spend energy to achieve a goal or reward.

b) Analysis of Models of Motivation

There are different motivational theories that can increase the worker's interaction with tourists. The five theories of encouragement are as follows:

  • Hertzberg’s Two-Factor Theory: It includes encouragement the factor and hygiene factor. Inspirational factor build the employee's satisfaction and encourage them to work hard. While Hygiene factor results in lack of encouragement and employee's dissatisfaction. According to Herbert's, the motivation and hygiene factors both affect the motivation. Both factors work independent of each other. The motivator factor increases the worker's satisfaction while absence of hygiene factor results in dissatisfaction among team members. This theory helped in increasing the productivity of Morrison as it has positive impact on the workers which has improved their performance. According to Wilkinson, the hygiene factor must be cared by every organization so that employees can enhance their performance. Health is the important factor behind the success of any organization so it is necessary to maintain the physical and mental health of the employee.
  • Maslow's Hierarchy of needs: The main aspect of this theory is that the user basic need must be fulfilled before they can be motivated to achieve their requirements. The hierarchy is made up of five levels that is physiological, safety, love, esteem, self actualization. The employee must be in good health condition with good relationships so that he can give its best. The team must be able to experience the honour and encouragement for hard work by giving the values of their responsibilities. From the view point of Chip Conely has used the hierarchy of needs to change business. He Further, it is also addedsaid that many managers fight with abstarctabstract concept of self actualization and hence give importance to lower level of pyramids of Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
  • Hawthorne Effect: This effect has modified all the rules of the organization including lightening, working hours and breaks. This changes increases the employee's productivity and performance. The employees are motivated to work harder and this can be done by paying attention to them. The employees will work hard if they know that someone is observing them and giving feedback and suggestion to their work. According to Wilkinson,the modification in the working hours can create bad impact on the performance of the organization as the employee's may be uncomfortable with new schedules.
  • Expectancy theory: It gives the path to the employees to behave on the outcomes of their expected behaviour. The Expectancy theory focuses on the process by which the employee can decide their behaviour which is affected by the rewards they perceive. This theory is based on three factors which are expectancy of the result of the desired goal of the employee. Second is instrumentality in which there is belief of getting reward based on the performance. And the last is Valence which is the importance as it focuses on the employee's reward. According to Day and Leggat, the employees may be demotivated if they cannot get the reward for their average performance. The employees may be demotivated by the good performance of the other. This leads to the competition among the employee's which creates stress and tension among them and results in their health failure.
  • Three dimensional theory of acknowledgement: This theory helps in understanding the attachment of employee to itself and to the other's behaviour. The three main characteristic that can affect the motivation are stability, locus of control and Controllability. This theory of attribution helps the employees to know their lacking areas and prevent them from the failure of an innate lack of skills. According to Wilkinson, the three dimension theory of acknowledgement helps the employee in behaving themselves which can create effective and friendly environment in the organization.

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c) Role of Manager

According to Pozin, manager must be a good leader. He is responsible for the organizational growth and development. The supervisor has to motivate the people to keep the the organizational processes appropriate and suitable.Tower of London clean and green so that its beauty must be maintained The manager has to ensure the proper maintenance of the surrounding of the building so that there will be no conflict and disputes among people The administrator must have leadership skill so that he can inspire other employees to handle them. This is also useful in getting the work done. The superintendent can motivate its employees by creating friendly work environment. As the employees spend much of their time in office, so by making office as friendly and comfortable atmosphere that can motivate the employees and they will more eager to work everydayevery day. From the view point of Friedman, manger can motivate its employees by regularly praising and rewarding them. The employeesemployee’s outstanding performance must be known to him and manager can praise him by writing an email or note on the employeesemployee’s check which gives him the feeling that his work is really outstanding. Also recognizing the employees efforts are essential and motivate them by making announcement to appreciate that person among the other employees.

Understanding the saying of Bush and Middle-wood, the head of the organization motivate the individual rather than in group. He can ensure that every employee is working towards the same objective. The administrator has to conduct regular meetings so that he can learn the things which employees do not take interest to do. During meetings, the head can listen to the ideas because this the best way to increase the performance of the employees. The administrator must show them bigger picture so that the employee'semployees can understand their contribution helps in achieving the goal. Assign task and projects and make sure that they understand how it will fits to the big picture.

While the writer Reh, argues that the employees must be given the chance to lead others in meetings and conferences. This leadership can give way to express their opinions and ideas which will motivate them as their view are listened by others. The supervisor must follow the open door policy which involves the use of “please” and “thank you” words. These words have positive impact on the employees and they feel confident about their position in the organization.

d) Role of Line Manager to Increase the Organization Effectiveness

The line manager is the person who plays an essential role in soft running of the business. He is responsible for handling the workers and resources to achieve the organizational objectives. The main responsibilities of line supervisor is to take care needs and requirements of the consumersthe tourists. The line manager provides cross-training to their employee's to reduce the assignment coverage gaps. These trainings can guide the employee's to maintain their good behaviour with the end user of Morrison. The line manager also provides coaching and feedback to all members so that they can increase their performance. The good services of the workers creates effective impression on the customers. This is in turn helps in achieving good feedback, satisfaction and ratings from the customer.

According to MacKian and Simons, the customer'scustomers will be demotivated if they do not get proper service from the authority though the company has name and fame. The customer will not be satisfied with the environment and employees behaviour. The customer's trust and confidence will be broken if they were not treated properly. The company has to suffer the economic crises and market loss if it is not able to fulfil the customer's requirements.

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Conclusion

From this report, it can be concluded that managing and leading the people is very important task which can help in achieving the organisationals goals. The manager, leader and line manager plays very important role in managing the employee'semployees and customers. The employee are needs to be regularly motivated by the manager so that he can enhance his performance and give the desired results. The Morrison organisation has many employees and customer which helps them in increasing its market shares; therefore necessary benefits should be delivered to all the associated people. The company works on ethical approach which gives the protection from any legal issues. The company's high productivity and effective services helps it in achieving the customer satisfaction.

References

  • Armstrong, M., (2016). Managing Up: Strategies for Cultivating Effective Supervisor Relationships.
  • Bloxham, R., Ehrich, L.C. and Iyer, R. Leading or managing? Assistant Regional Directors, School Performance, in Queensland.Journal of Educational Administration.
  • Bush, T. and Middlewood, D.Leading and managing people in education. Sage.
  • Charlwood, A. and Hoque, K., (2017). Managing People.The Oxford Handbook of Management.
  • Cho, V. and Jimerson, J. B., (2016). Managing digital identity on Twitter The case of school administrators.Educational Management Administration & Leadership.
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