Classical conditioning is a learning theory in which knowledge and information is acquired between a naturally occurring and environmental stimulus. Some assumptions are used under classical conditioning and it supports in the overall learning procedure. According to classical conditioning theory, complete learning occurs through interaction with the environment and behaviour is also shaped due to the same. Association between external and internal stimulus results in learned response (Harker, Mahar & Wilkes, 2016).. Initially a naturally occurring stimulus elicits a response and unconditioned stimulus gives response as a result of same.
Automatic and responsive responses are included under it and a neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus. According to classical conditioning approach, learning occurs through a systematic approach and process in which response is elicited by external stimuli. Conditioned stimulus is neutral stimulus that starts a response and reflex outcome is given by unconditioned stimulant (External stimulus .2017). Conditioned stimulus gives response towards the unconditioned stimulus and predictions are given to unconditional stimulus. Behaviours are modified through association of stimuli and overall learning process depends upon the same (Talbot-Smith, Abell & Hanuscin, 2013). Conditioned response is generally similar to unconditioned response and Ivan Pavlov gave a theory by conducting study on various stimulus.
According to operant conditioning, it has been observed that there are two types of reinforcements naming as positive and negative. In negative reinforcement, behaviour or response given by a stimulus is Strengthened by removing, avoiding and stopping a negative outcome. Negative reinforcement is given under an operant conditioning and due to that, it becomes easier for strengthening the desired behaviour (Bresler, 2013). As per the theory of operant conditioning, the best way to understand the behaviour of an individual is to look at the root cause and consequences received from that behaviour.
Intentional actions that give impact on the surrounding environment are main operant and identification of procedures is done because of which certain behaviour or actions generally occur. Neutral operant are those responses in which probability of repeating the behaviour is negligible. Similarly, reinforces are those responses from the environment in which probability of repeating a behaviour is increased. Reinforcers can be positive or negative and Punisher are those responses in which likelihood of repeating a behaviour decreases. Positive reinforcement defines about strengthening a behaviour by providing rewarding consequences for repeating a behaviour (Wellington, 2015). Punishment and extinctions come in the category of negative reinforcements and due to the same, individuals avoid repeating a particular behaviour.
Thorndike's Law of Effect is a psychological principle which states about occurring of responses in a certain specific situation. As per this theory, responses and behaviour that are more likely to give satisfying responses in a particular situation has high probability of occurring again (Capuzzi & Stauffer, 2016).. On the other hand, responses that give negative effect, have less probability of occurring back again. If a certain behaviour or response provides advantage and proves beneficial then it is more likely to occur again.
However, if a certain action shows discomfort and disadvantages then chances for appearing back of this behaviour are less. Some factors are responsible for behaviour changes and specific action that produces good results are likely to be repeated as satisfying outcomes are given by them. However, undesired outcomes given by some specific behaviours have less probability for getting repeated (Olson, 2015). Particular situations are also responsible for eliciting a behaviour and due to that, overall outcomes received from a specific situation gets affected and influenced. Possible outcomes given by a specific behaviour determines the future occurrence of that response.
Schedules of reinforcement defines about the repetition of certain behaviour followed by a reinforcer. It is an important tool that is being used in operant conditioning for assessing the frequency for occurrence of a specific behaviour. Schedules are described in which a particular behaviour will be repeated and fixed interval and variable interval are determined under the schedules of reinforcement (Lantolf, Thorne & Poehner, 2015).. Variations in schedules also determine about different advantages and disadvantages that are associated with a specific behaviour.
If there is compound reinforcement schedules than under the same, two simple schedules are combined together. Extinctions are defined as a situation in which a particular behaviour ceases as it is no longer reinforced. Schedule of reinforcement is a tactic used in operant conditioning that gives influence on the manner in which operant response is maintained and learned. Every schedule activity determines about the way and duration in which a specific behaviour is likely to occur and schedule of occurrence of behaviour is determined. Schedules vary from interval based schedule to ratio based and compound schedules (Knowles, Holton & Swanson, 2014). It is basically a rule that determines and state about when a particular behaviour will be reinforced. Positive and negative reinforcement occur and probability of occurrence of both is similar.
Summarise Bandura’s Social Learning Theory describes that individuals acquire new knowledge and information by learning from each other. Observation of behaviour done by others also supports in gaining new learnings. People gain new learnings and knowledge from observing attitudes, values, beliefs and outcomes of behaviours made by other people (Kintsch & Vipond, 2014). According to this theory, human behaviour is explained in terms of reciprocal interpretation. The theory describes that learning takes place in social context and it is a continuous process. Outcomes of behaviour of another person is also observed by the individuals for learning about behaviours which are good and bad. Responses that create advantages and disadvantages are found by people by making close observation of behaviour of other individuals. According to the theory, learning can occur by extracting information from other sources and observing positive and negative consequences of behaviour made by other individuals (Peters, 2015). When certain behaviours are performed by individuals then observation is done by other people who support in acquiring new learnings.
Different modelling techniques give impact on the social learning theory and overall learning procedure gets influenced due to the same. Concept of modelling keeps significant place in the social learning theory and three major modelling concepts are used under it. Live model is a concept in which demonstration of a particular behaviour is done by an actual individual.
Moreover, verbal instructions is also a modelling that is described under social learning theory and according to it, explanation is given by a person about a specific and desired behaviour. Along with that, it renders encouragement for other people to get involved and engaged in that specific behaviour (Laurillard, 2013). Symbolic modelling is one more significant modelling concept under which modelling occurs by making use of electronic sources such as television, radio, websites, internet and reading resources including books and journals. In this modelling, real and fictional; both types of characters can be used as a stimulus. Social learning theory is all about acquiring new knowledge and information by making use of external stimuli and type of information which is gathered depends upon the type of modelling used.
Different learning environment gives impact on the people's learning and behaviour and overall knowledge and new information acquired gets affected due to it. Physical characteristics of learning environment gives impact on the manner ion which new knowledge is acquired. Cognitive and behavioural responses of stimuli gets affected due to it (Larson & Marsh, 2014). If learning environment is conductive and positive than it will become easier to acquire new details and information. Moreover, if any learning environment is not conductive than it will become difficult for gaining required knowledge and information in appropriate manner.
Learning environments in which only fewer distractions are observed proved to be more effective for rendering good learning to participants. Environmental factors, human factors and social factors are most significant elements that are part of learning environment. Sometimes devices and increases of equipments causes distraction in learning environment and overall learning process gets hampered due to it (Breen, 2014). In addition to these distractions made by human interferences is also a significant element that leads towards causing distractions in learning environment. Effective and conductive learning environment supports for gaining new and effective learning by people. People are encouraged towards better and effective learning in positive and conductive environment and motivational level of individuals decreases if environment is not supportive .
Functional and dysfunctional environment gives impact on the learning procedure and overall learning process gets influenced due to it. It is assertive that learning atmosphere should be conductive so that learner should get better and effective knowledge and information as required, functional learning environment has all the features and characteristics that supports for getting good learning. Whereas dysfunctional learning environment does not support for providing better and detailed knowledge to the learner (Getz & Page, 2016). All the processes And learning material are arranged in systematic and organized way and it aids in rendering required learning to the participants effectively.
Functional learning environment gives conductive atmospheres which supports for growth. It supports people in acquiring new knowledge and information and encourages for learning. Positive feelings and thoughts occur in the mind of individuals and motivation level remains higher in functional learning environment. Whereas as in dysfunctional learning environment required support is not found and due to this it becomes difficult for completing desired objectives of learning. Proper outcomes are not received In dysfunctional learning environment and due to this it becomes difficult to acquire required knowledge and information in proper way (Kuratko, 2016)). This type of environment forces an individual for making compromise and due to this negative feeling's comes in the mind of learner.
Social learning model is associated with Stimulus and response model of learning and processes used under both the theories. Social model theory describes that learning are gained by people by observing attitude, behaviour, beliefs and values of other individual. Social learning theory is an integrated mix of Stimulus and responses model of learning (Richards & Rodgers, 2014).
Social learning theories are combination of cognitive learning theory and behavioural theory and integration of both the theories have been mentioned under social learning models. Three specific stimulus have been defined under modelling stimuli and it is needed that proper understanding of them should be made. Three types of model includes live model in which demonstration of desired and preferred behaviour is done by an individual. One another model is verbal instruction in which desired behaviour and responses are explained by a specific individual and it aids in encouraging other participants to take part in the learning process. Symbolic model defines about adopting learning by making use of television, radio, internet and literature sources (Harker, Mahar & Wilkes, 2016). All the social learning models have responses and stimuli and due to it all explains about learning procedures.
Stimulus and response theory and social learning theory helps in creating a program for change in counseling practices. New and innovative methods can be adopted for making modifications in existing counseling sessions and due to that it becomes easier for accomplishing the desired aims and goals of counseling sessions (Talbot-Smith, Abell & Hanuscin, 2013). Origin of issues and root cause behind a specific problem can be easily identified and better methods can be identified for resolving the issues in effective way.
Learning theories states that behavior of an individual is learned from exposure to punishments and rewards. Stimulus and response theory and social learning theory aids in identifying possible causes that leads towards elicitation of certain behavior in an individual. New methods and techniques can be added in the counseling practices by making use of guidelines that are being mentioned in the social theory and Stimulus and response theory. Moreover, counseling practices can be carried out effectively by making use of both the theories and it will also support for completing all the objectives of counseling sessions (Bresler, 2013).
Selena is a 21 year old young girl who is suffering from low self esteem due to her healthy weight and she berates herself every-time for it. Selena is mother always encourages her to take counselling so that she will come out from the low self esteem faced by her. Her brother is athletic build and so feels discomfort in going out with Selena. Her father is also a modelling influence who always pass taunts on her daughter. Her friends are also trying to make distance from her as every time she berates herself for being fatty and overweight.
Positive and negative reinforcement both works and gives influences on thoughts and mentality of Selena. It was difficult for her to go outside with her brother as he is athletic build and he feels embarrassment in seen with her sister Selena. Her mother is a positive reinforcement who encourages her to take part in the counseling sessions. Her father is negative reinforcement who always pass negative comments on her and due to that low self esteem is observed in Selena.
Analysis of individual responses to modelling throughout client's life- Selena has always faced criticism for her being overweight and healthy and since her school days she was indulge in feeling low esteemed due to her overweight and fatty body structure. Moreover, her friends were not supportive towards her and her parents including her father and brother used to pass taunt on her due to her excessive weight. Negative responses were high and due to that it becomes difficult for her to gain her self confidence and get socialize with people.Analysis of the effect of client's environment – Client Selena's environment is full of negative reinforcements and it enhances her low self esteem level. Her family members are not supportive towards her and no encouragement is given to her which lead towards creating depression in Selena for her overweight.
Client Selena wants to make a good career for herself and she wants to get socialize with people and get appreciated by her friends. In addition to that it is required that she should stop Berating herself for being overweight and healthy.
Counseling sessions can be designed for Selena so that she comes out from the mental depression suffered by him (Kintsch & Vipond, 2014). It will support her to come out from the self esteem and it she will be encouraged for taking steps to reduce her weight and getting out of her home. Exercise schedule can be designed for Selena so that she will reduce her weight and lives healthy life.
Positive reinforcement techniques will be used for ensuring behavioral changes in client (Breen, 2014). Rewards will be given for completing a specific activity and assigned work and it will support for encouraging the client to come out with the issues which are being faced and it will also help the client in coming out from the depression stage in which currently she is in.
Use of behavior questionnaire can be taken for monitoring and recording the client's progress and it will aid for identifying weak performing areas of clients.
Stimulus and response techniques will be used for implementing the programs and strategies formulated for helping the client to recover from the issues that were being faced by him. Rewards will work as stimulus and it will help in elicitation in Selena to perform well and take part in activities to cope out with the current issues that are being faced by them. Punishments were also be determined which will work as negative reinforcement and it will prevent Selena to get involved in activities that lead towards creating low self esteem in her.
Positive and negative reinforcements will be determined so that behavioral changes can be observed in Selena and it will aid for encouraging her to take part in diverse activities so that she will reduce her weights -
Monetary and non monetary rewards, career growth opportunities,
Healthy body, overweight, fatty body structure, low self esteem
It is defined as consequences and outcomes gained from an action in which probability and likelihood for occurrence of the event are high (Richards & Rodgers, 2014). Advantages and benefits that are associated with a certain behavior enhances chances and probability that certain event will occur in repeated times due to various benefits associated with it.
It is consequences and outcomes that have been gained from a certain action in which chances and probability of occurrence of an event are low due to the disadvantages and discomfort level associated with an event (Kuratko, 2016). If a certain event or behavior is causing troubles and discomfort level of people than chances for repeating the event and behavior are low. Fear in the mind of client will be created and she will try to refuse and avoid behavior which are made by her.
Verbal and mediating responses supported in making interaction with the contingencies of reinforcements. It also helped in determining and stating the acquisition of correspondence and non correspondence. Correspondence is defined as relation between saying of a person and acting behavior of an individual.