Travel and tourism industry plays a crucial role in today's competitive environment in order to protect the natural beauty of the country. This industry has helped many nations in improving their economic condition in a proper and effective manner. Further, heritage tourism is considered as a branch of tourism which is oriented towards the cultural heritage at a location where tourism occurs (George, 2010). On the other hand, cultural tourism is generally concerned with the region or culture which specifies the lifestyle of the individuals living in that particular geographical area. Further, it is also a type of tourism which is conducted by people in order to improve their knowledge and also to understand the different cultures followed by the resident of different countries. In relation to this, both the tourism play a significant role in terms of rising the economic condition of that particular area.
In relation to above mentioned topic, this present report will be prepared by considering different case scenarios given in the question file. Further, in relation to the given context, this report will give elaborated description regarding the growth and development of UK heritage and cultural industry. This report will also emphasize on the purpose of heritage and cultural tourism for attracting and meeting the needs and demands of travellers. Moreover, report will also depict different roles and responsibilities of the organizations which are running within heritage and cultural industry.
Currently, London is being counted among the city which attracts millions of visitors from around the world. In relation to this, it can state that Victoria & Albert Museum, Buckingham Palace and British Museum is the major attraction points for tourists within the city who comes for travelling. Hence, it can be stated that there are various historical development which are considered in the travel and tourism industry of London. This is significantly increasing the goodwill for the particular country and revenue as well.
Further, heritage and cultural of UK plays a significant role in terms of improving the economic condition of country (Hamilton, 2008). Moreover, government of UK is also taking some relative steps in order to conserve and protect the natural and heritage sites of country. Although, if it is not done by the local body, then country will not be able to attract more visitors from around the globe and natural integrity of the country will be not be properly depicted. However, growth and development of culture and heritage industry in UK is not new as it has been continued from past years and below given is the time line growth and development of UK culture and heritage industry:
Moreover, currently there are other factors as well which are playing crucial role in terms of facilitating the travel and tourism growth in UK. Some detailed explanation about the assessed factors have been depicted down under:
Infrastructure: The infrastructure of UK and especially of cities like London is highly developed. In relation to the same, it has been evaluated that London has facilities and services for all the income class customers (Leask and Rihova, 2010). Further, there are also different means of transport which provide convenience to the travellers for reaching to the desired destination. In order to promote the culture and heritage, government is also taking major responsibility of making effective road and rail transport which will play a significant role in future as well.
Technology: UK is treated as a hub of latest and modern technology and government of the mentioned country constantly makes efforts to improve the technological environment of UK. Cities like London has highly developed and there are many individuals who come from different countries to seek job opportunities. This will be proved as the beneficial aspect for travel and tourism companies which are operating within city (Lomine and Edmunds, 2007). Further, with the use of high tech internet technology, these firms can attract many travellers towards the country and due to this, positive impact will be seen upon the economy of country.
Potential conflicts which happen in the process of conserving the heritage and culture resource of the nation are been identified. In the context of this, case study of Tibet is given which shows that country is facing with the number of conflicts and government of cited nation has to take relative steps in order to stop these conflicts (Mckercher and Cros, 2012).
As per the case study, Tibet is treated as a roof of the world and it is also a worldwide tourist destination which offers travellers a combination of mind blowing monasteries, high altitude treks and also a unique intangible culture. This country is also a home of various religious temples. In addition to this, Lhasa is the capital of Tibet and this city is the most visited place of the country as more than 10 million travellers come around the globe which include both domestic and international visitors.
By evaluating the case study, potential conflicts has been identified which is happening in the capital of Tibet naming Lhasa. It has been identified that the biggest conflict is happening between the Chinese government and the inhabitants residing in the Tibet. Further, government of China is been considered as a potential of the Tibet which focuses on maintaining large number of tourists within the country (Balmer, 2013). Further, the local body of China is also taking some major decisions in regard of promoting and establishing some large scale projects within the country. Currently, government is focusing on renovating the Barkhor old town district which is situated outside sacred Jokhang temple in Lhasa. Moreover, government is also planning to construct a theme park in the outskirts of Lhasa with an investment of almost $4.8 billions which will attract many visitors in coming time period. Further, a group of hotels named InterContinental Hotel Group (IHG) is also designing a plan to make a hotel with almost 1100 rooms and this hotel after the construction will be the biggest luxury hotel in Lhasa (Shipley and Kovacs, 2008).
On the contrary, these projects has lead towards development of many conflicts within the city as UK with an aim to boycott these projects London based free Tibet has launched the campaign for the purpose to show their residence towards the given campaign. This conflict is arising because the individuals who are leaving in Lhasa are concerned of the culture and environment of particular city (Boniface and Cooper, 2009). These citizens knows that the construction will destroy and make a huge impact on the traditional architecture of the city and due to this USP of the country will be influenced. Further, construction will also lead towards the marginalization of heritage importance and from all the above facts and it is considered that due to this conflicting situations arising within the city.
My view point for the particular situation is slightly contrary and will support both the conditions. I agree that with so much construction work will take place in coming half a decade or so which will surely impact the cultural and heritage of Lhasa as well as the environment (Cardoso and Ferreira, 2000). But on the other side, if I see the other perspective, then it leads to render some good things for the city. As after getting the permission from the government, unemployment problem relating to the country will be solved and more and more people will get the employment in different fields and after the construction, for instance for hotel, it will give more employment in different department of the hospitality and these employees can survive their daily life with a set income. With the help of it, the living standard of the individual will also be raised and people will be more standard as compared to earlier time.
Heritage and culture attraction having different purpose and they generally possess some unique elements which attracts a large number of tourists towards it. Along with it, this heritage and culture attraction plays a crucial role in meeting the needs and demands of different types of travelers who come to visit from around the globe (Grimwade and Carter, 2000). For the mentioned topic, two unique and popular destinations of UK have been considered and the detailed description of the mentioned topic have been studied down under:
British Museum is a museum which is generally dedicated to the human history, art and culture and the mentioned museum is located in the hearts of the London city. This museum consists of more than 8 million objects collection which depicts and illustrates the story of human existence from the beginning to the current time. Further, this museum was established in 1753 and it consists of huge collection of physician and scientists named as Sir Hans Sloans. Moreover, the museum having lists of unique collection which comprises Granite statue of Senwosret III, Stela of King Peribsen, Abydos, Statue of Nenkheftka from Deshasha, Statue of the Nile god Hapy, Mummy of Ginger from Gebelein and many others. Further, this museum also has a national library which exists in the same building. Further, the mentioned museum is a non- department public body which is sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.
Further, in relation to the given context, it is considered as museum helping in fulfilling the needs and demands of the different visitors. These customers include families, children, students, scientists, etc. For researcher, this museum helps them in finding new area for making specific research (Hamilton, 2008). For students those who are from the arts and literature field, this museum will help them to have a depth knowledge regarding the heritage history of the UK. Moreover, this museum also fulfilling the needs and demands of the families as parents wants their children that they should know more about their country history. Further, at the weekend or for travellers who are coming from outside UK are coming for the entertainment as well. By spending hours in this museum they come to know the hidden secret about the UK in a whole elaborated manner (Lomine and Edmunds, 2007). By considering the overall observations, it is concluded that this museum is satisfying the needs and demands of visitors in an effective and efficient manner.
Natural History Museum
Natural History Museum is treated as most prestigious museum in London due to its natural beauty which exhibits the different segments of the natural history. Further, this museum is considered as home to life and earth and includes more than 80 million items in different collection fields (Mitsche and et.al., 2013). These collections are divided in the categories of botany, mineralogy, zoology, entomology and palaeontology. Moreover, this museum is also a world renounced centre for research in taxonomy. Although this museum is majorly famous for the exhibition of dinosaur skeletons which are placed in the central hall of the museum. Fuyrther, this museum was established in the year 1881 and the visitors who are coming to the museum do not have to pay any type of admission or sort of entrance fee. Moreover, there are different types of gallerias which shows the description of different collections like blue zone gives description about all animals and mammals like dinosaurs, fish, etc (Page and Connell, 2006).
This museum also accomplish the needs and demands of different visitors. For instance, students visits to museum with a purpose of improving the knowledge regarding the natural history of the country where they reside. In the similar way, families with children visit to museum for entertainment and extending knowledge of their children for enhancement purpose (Riege and Perry, 2000). In addition to this, scholar visit such museum with an aim to get the idea for conducting the further research upon the particular topic. Thus, through this way only museum tends to satisfy the needs and demands of different buyers in an appropriate way.
While visiting to any museum or heritage sites, it is essential to interpret the actual information about the places and things. Also, it is essential for spreading awareness related to cultural and historical sites which aids in gaining support to safeguard the same. In this context, different sort of media and methods are used by organizations so that they can understand the meaning of varied things (Weiler, 1999). In this, interpretations are required at three different stage within the context of heritage and cultural industry. These are enumerated below:
Before Arrival: At this stage, visitors can be attracted by posting images, videos and blog post at different platform such as social media, own websites, country’s website and other related sources (Youell, 2000). This helps in developing interest among visitors.
At the time of Arrival: Here, physical broachers and posters can be circulated among visitors in which information of key attraction are enclosed. It acts as a mode of communication to large set of visitors.
After the Visits: Toys, gift item, images and prototype can be circulated or sell to visitors so that they can take memories back to their country or places. It helps in gaining attention from other people as well and hence inbound tourism gets increased.
For the purpose of interpreting the information to visitors, following methods and media are used at cited museum:
1. Exhibition: The museum conducts exhibition on different time interval in which information related to different artefacts are shared with the visitors. Here, digital display and prototype of actual articles are used in order to ensure that better interpretation has been done.
2. Events: There are different types of events that run on daily basis such as Eye-opener tours, Gallery talks, Around the world in 90 minutes and numerous others in which demonstration of articles is been done by professionals.
3. Guide: In every room of the museum, there are guides ranging from 1 in number to 5 that shares information with the visitors. This essentially helps in interpreting the information by the visitors (Rodgers, 2001). Also, question answer round are held in order to boost the interpretation level.
Further, the main aim behind the interpretation is to provide and enrich visitors with a comfortable experience so that it will be easy for them in order to understand the significance of the place where they are visiting. The Natural History Museum has employed different methods which are generally used to interpret and enhance their experience in the form of art and drama, signs and labels, touch screening displays, etc. Further, from observation point of view, tourist and travellers can go through the exhibitions, galleries where they can spend the best quality time with their family members or with the loved ones. National History Museum also has restaurants where individuals can enjoy the best quality of the foods at an affordable price. Further, visitor can take part of being a volunteer and can also take part in the various competition as currently mentioned museum is conducting a wildlife photographer of the year contest.
Moreover, as Christmas is near and by considering this festival individuals can make shopping relating to the occasion and they can also purchase toys of different varieties. Further, people can have digital video display of the major content relating to the criminal scene where individuals can help the museum in order to solve the criminal mystery (Samuel and Agyei, 2006). Further, the rising interest of public in history and archaeology also creating an effective impact on interpretation of the heritage value. Moreover, extending access to digital media has helped the organizations in creating an effective impact on the growth of the industry. Therefore, by considering all these facts and figures in films and popular sites, museum helps in enhancing its publicity within the public which helps visitors in effective understanding of the facts and values as well.
From the above report, it is clearly inferred that that conversation and preservation of heritage is important in having economic growth of the country. Further, in the present situation, tourism is generally taking a new phase and for this, culture and heritage are playing its crucial role. Further, this report shows that mentioned country is able to attract visitors towards it and this is the only reason which lead to the rise in GDP of the country. This report also emphasis on develop different types of ownership in the tourism sector so that better development can be attained. In this context, partnership can be of public, private and independent charitable associations that aids in gaining significant support for preserving the culture.