Employee Dissatisfaction and causes

A Study on Causes and Effect Of Employees Dissatisfaction

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1.1 Overview

Employees are considered to be asset for an organization. They not only help the organization to achieve its objectives but also provide strength to the business. For the success of any business, employee satisfaction is extremely significant. Employee satisfaction describes the extent to which employees are happy and content (Bowling, Hendricks and Wagner, 2008). It also involves finding out whether the needs and desires are being fulfilled by them or not. Employee satisfaction is important as it leads to employee motivation. Further satisfied employees are encouraged towards achieving their goals. This results in the development of positive employee morale in the workplace which is crucial for success of every organization. Satisfied employees perform better at every aspect of the organization. However, with dissatisfaction, employee performance decreases.

Dissatisfaction with the job is felt by many employees at one point or another. As a result of this, jobs are left by some for better opportunities. For those employees who choose to continue with their job, work becomes more of a burden. Dissatisfaction may be caused by a number of factors (Christen, Iyer and Soberman, 2006). These are the reasons for unhappiness of employees which must be understood by the organization. Underpaying the workers is one of the prime reasons for dissatisfaction. Employees not only have to manage stagnant wages, but also high costs of health insurance. With limited income, workers are under constant stress which leads to discontentment. An equal role in employee dissatisfaction is played by another factor related to limited advancement and career growth (Johnson, 2014). Lack of growth in career is a reason for displeasure of the employees. This makes the employees feel stuck in their job position. As such, they are less motivated to maintain high productivity (Naus, Iterson and Roe, 2007). However, employees may also feel dissatisfied due to their lack of interest in the work. Engaging and challenging job opportunities are desired by the staff. Boredom is caused due to monotonous work which leads to displeasure. In this regard, the role of management team also needs to be considered. Poor management results in discontentment of the employees. This is because it is the responsibility of the managers to motivate the employees and exercise appropriate planning, organizing and control.

Employee dissatisfaction is important for the organizations to be taken into consideration. Discontentment with the job leads to employee unrest (Slugoski, 2008). As a result of this, an employee is not able to perform his work well. If large numbers of workers are affected by it, then collectively, this may cause work stoppage or slowing down of work. The productivity and performance of the organization is thus negatively impacted. If employees are not satisfied with their job, they are more likely to be absent from work. This will disrupt the operational and other activities of the organization. Tardiness is another consequence of employee dissatisfaction (Boichuk and Menguc, 2013). As the employees do not feel happy with the working conditions and the job, they spend more time in rest rooms. They linger in the parking lot before coming to work. Too much time is spent by the employees on telephone calls. This implies that dissatisfied employees do not spend time on useful and productive work. Dissatisfied employees are likely to leave unpleasant working conditions. They move on towards work relationships that are considered to be more satisfying by them. Rival companies always demonstrate readiness for recruiting talented employees. For this, they even provide good salaries. These attractions encourage dissatisfied employees to leave their company and join others (Islam, 2014). Hence, employee dissatisfaction may lead to loss of talent from an organization. Moreover, a negative connotation is carried by employee turnover. It is costly to a firm as investment in human capital is lost.

In the present study, emphasis has been laid on exploring the reasons behind the dissatisfaction of the employees at Paradise Trading Co. P. Ltd. the organization under study is situated in Nepal and retails in fabric. It is also one of the major exporters and importers of fabrics. At this retail organization, the employees have to deal with a number of local as well as international customers (Miles and Mangold, 2014). As such, it is important for the employees to be extremely talented because they are required to understand local and other languages, writing skills, computer knowledge and interpersonal skills. Then organization and its managers need to explore the reasons that cause dissatisfaction among the employees. In this dissertation, the reasons behind dissatisfaction of employees at Paradise Trading Co. P. Ltd. have been explored. Attempt has been made to investigate the concept of employee dissatisfaction in detail. The research will identify the factors that cause dissatisfaction of employees. Impacts of employee dissatisfaction will also be discussed. Lastly, the dissertation will make necessary recommendations that are practical and realistic. The recommendations will be presented on the basis of the conclusions derived from data analysis and literature review.

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1.2 Research problem

Every organization requires talented employees who prove to be a boon for it. More important is retaining these talented employees. Dissatisfaction of employees makes them attracted towards rival organizations (Bianchi and Drennan, 2012). These employees leave their company in search of a more satisfactory workplace. Paradise Trading Co. P. Ltd. has been experiencing employee dissatisfaction issues. This has resulted into reduced performance of the employees. The staff at the concerned organization needs to be talented for handling domestic and international workers. Such talented employees who work at Paradise Trading Co. P. Ltd. are hard to be found. These are an asset for the company that needs to be retained. However, employee dissatisfaction may pose threat to Paradise Trading Company. Dissatisfied employees may perform poorly. This may negatively impact the performance of the organization. Dissatisfied employees may also leave the company (Kusluvan, 2003). This will obstruct the production and operational activities. Not only this, trade secrets will be carried by the employees while leaving the company. For a continuously evolving and innovating company such as Paradise Trading Co. P. Ltd., this can be a major setback. In this regard, there is a need to identify and explore various reasons behind the dissatisfaction of employees at the organization under study.

1.3 Chapter structure

When a research is being carried out, it is required of the researcher to follow a well defined structure which is appropriate for the study (Kusluvan, 2003). The structure comprises of a series of chapters that form a crucial part of the research study. Discussion about the various chapters of dissertation has been made with the help of the following paragraphs:

Chapter 1: Introduction

In this chapter a clear cut framework will be provided about the topic of the research. The introduction section will start with the overview segment. This will provide a description of the topic under study and its link to the organization which has been under consideration which is Paradise Trading Co. P. Ltd. in Nepal. Following this will be given the aims and objectives of the research along with the research questions. Lastly in this section, there will be discussions on research tools, techniques and potential significance of the topic of research (Hill, 2007).

Chapter 2: Literature Review

This chapter will provide an outline of the significance of research topic which is employee dissatisfaction. It will also discuss various concepts related to discontentment of employees. Further, reasons that lead to the same will be analyzed. Literature review section will present the points of view of different authors about the consequences of discontentment of employees. In-depth assessment of the areas of research study will be done on the basis of published works of well known authors. This will be linked to the reasons behind employee dissatisfaction at Paradise Trading Co. P. Ltd.

Chapter 3: Research Methodology

In this chapter, there will be discussion on the different methods that the researcher has used for taking the research forward. Justifications for using a particular method will also be provided. Further, the understanding will be developed about limitations and ethical considerations. This section will also provide information on the resources that have been used by the researcher.

Chapter 4: Data Analysis and Findings

In this section, the data that has been collected will be analyzed in an in-depth manner. This will be assistive in reaching the outcomes.

Chapter 5: Conclusion and Recommendations

This segment will aid in the presentation of major findings which have been obtained after analysis of the data. Appropriate recommendations will b provided with the help of this section (Sobh and Perry, 2006). These can be considered so as to remove the factors that cause employee dissatisfaction at Paradise Trading Co. P. Ltd.

1.4 Aim and objectives


To explore the reasons behind employee dissatisfaction at Paradise Trading Co. P. Ltd


The following objectives have been prepared with the given aim:

  • To identify the factors that cause employee dissatisfaction at Paradise Trading Co. P. Ltd
  • To analyze the impacts of employee dissatisfaction.
  • To recommend realistic and practical suggestions to Paradise Trading Co. P. Ltd

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1.5 Focus and Purpose

The main purpose of the present research is to explore the reasons which lead to employee dissatisfaction at Paradise Trading Co. P. Ltd. The research will fulfill the purpose of analyzing the gaps left by previous researches on the topic. Various literatures are available which provide information on the benefits that satisfied employees provide to an organization. Various researches have been conducted on the concept of employee satisfaction and its consequences. However, an area is still present that needs to be explored. This includes the reasons why employees are dissatisfied. Voluntary employee turnover still exists as a problem for many firms (Christen, Iyer and Soberman, 2006). This clearly justifies the purpose of the present research which is intended to investigate the factors that cause employee dissatisfaction.

This concept is particularly essential with retail organizations. Organizations that retail in fabric are required to be innovative. They develop teams of talented employees who run the organization and take it to new heights. These businesses need to make their employees satisfied so that they are retained with the company (Naus, Iterson and Roe, 2007). For this, factors that cause dissatisfaction of employees need to be discovered and removed. This will provide numerous benefits to the companies in the form of a strong and competent workforce that is dedicated to work towards the achievement of organizational goals.

1.6 Research question

Research questions assist in the development of a strong framework for the research. It is for this reason, that formulation of research question is important (Christopher, 2014). For the present research on employee dissatisfaction, following research questions have been prepared:

  • What are the factors that cause employee dissatisfaction at Paradise Trading Co. P. Ltd?
  • What are the impacts of employee dissatisfaction?
  • What realistic and practical suggestions can be recommended to Paradise Trading Co. P. Ltd?

1.7 Framework and analysis

When information is to be collected from reliable sources, framework and analysis section forms one of the most important steps in research. This is significant as with it, the researcher can arrive at conclusions and recommendations by making proper decisions (Kumar, 2014). In this regard, the following are the various steps:

Design of research

The research will be based on descriptive and explanatory research design. This design will be helpful in describing the characteristics of the population and explore the reasons that make the employees dissatisfied (Fiegen, 2010). Specific behaviours could be described by the researcher using this design. Explanatory research design helps to provide explanation of variables. Hence, these will be appropriate for the present research.

Research approach

There will be use of inductive approach. This approach provides a flexible structure with respect to the research progresses and findings. The research is about finding the reasons behind discontentment of employees (Khalid, 2009). These reasons can be varied and will require new findings to be added to the study. Hence, inductive approach is suitable.

Research philosophy

A combination of interpretivism and positivism philosophy will be used for the present research.

Techniques of research

The present research will make use of qualitative techniques of research.

Method for data collection

This research on employee dissatisfaction will use both primary and secondary methods of data collection. Collection of primary data will be done with the help of survey method. Questionnaire will be sent to the respondents through e-mail. This will be close ended questionnaire. Online survey which is being used in the present research is suitable due to geographical barrier (Survey Sampling Methods, 2014).

Sampling technique

Data will be collected from the population by using probability sampling technique. This is a suitable method as the total number of employees in the company is 25 and each of them will be a part of the research.

Analysis of data

In the present research, qualitative technique will be used for analyzing the data. This will be done by using thematic approach.

1.8 Potential Significance

The present research is significant as it helps to explore the concept of employee dissatisfaction in detail. This will assist in identifying the factors that make the employees discontent. These factors can be addressed so as to make the employees satisfied (Slugoski, 2008). As such, they could be retained by Paradise Trading Co. P. Ltd. the given research will help in analyzing the consequences of employee dissatisfaction. As such, the present research will be of potential significance to the following:

  • It will help the academicians who prepare for PH. D. or other degrees. With the help of this research, they will be able to develop understanding about employee dissatisfaction, its causes and consequences (Flick, 2011).
  • It will also be of potential importance to various organizations as they will learn about the causes of discontentment of employees. By learning about the causes, steps can be taken by them for dealing with employee dissatisfaction (Jepsen and Rodwell, 2008). As such, various organizations will be benefitted as employee turnover could be reduced.
  • The research will be significant for the thinkers. It will present a deep and innovative insight about the ideas and techniques which form an integral part of the research.
  • Analysts will also be assisted by the research (Qu and Dumay, 2011). They will get an overview about the causes of employee dissatisfaction and its impact on organizations.
  • Various men and women who belong to the field of literature will be equally benefitted by the research (Gatrell, 2009). The present study will be of particular importance to them as it will endow them with new styles as well as creative approaches and techniques of literature.

Considering the above points, the present research on exploring employee dissatisfaction and its causes will act as an important source of information. This will also act as a foundation for obtaining deep insights about the concept of employee dissatisfaction.

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2.1 Introduction

After the introduction of the research, the next chapter is literature review. It forms an important section of the dissertation. In this section, information which the researcher has gathered from a range of secondary sources is presented. This section of study consists of the works of other authors and researchers who have done similar studies earlier. Literature review thus assists in identification of the gap that is left by the previous researches. Apart from this, it is a critical evaluation of the viewpoints of different authors. In this way, it aids in the formation of a strong theoretical base of the subject under study. In the present dissertation, literature review will include information gathered from secondary sources on human resource management and its techniques. After providing an overview of the importance of employee satisfaction in relation to fabric industry, the literature review section will consist of information on factors responsible for employee dissatisfaction. By highlighting the main studies that have been conducted till now, this section will help the researcher to gain insights on effects of employee dissatisfaction.

2.2 Human resource management

Human resource management (HRM) is a function that organizations design in order to maximize the performance of the employees. According to Price (2011), HRM is primarily concerned with the ways of managing people within organization (Price, 2011). Production of every product or service is a result of human mind, efforts and man hours. Human being is the fundamental resource for production of ant material. It can be evaluated that management of human resources is thus important for maximizing and properly utilizing their talent. David (2009), states that human resource management is the process of recruitment, selection, training and motivation of employees (David, 2009). Considering this, it can be said that human resource management has its core purpose as making efficient use of existing human resource in the organization.

Fulmer and Genson (2006) in their study describe the techniques of human resource management. These include training, mentoring and various incentives that are given to the employees (Fulmer and Genson, 2006). Every organization wants to have a skilled ad competent workforce. It also wants a healthy working environment in which employees are able to work uninterrupted. Various techniques of HRM help in managing various aspects related to human resources of a firm. According to Zhang, Nie and Luo (2009), recruitment and training are important techniques of HRM (Zhang, Nie and Luo, 2009). These are one of the major responsibilities of human resource team. Vallaster (2005) argues that performance appraisal is an important HRM technique. Through this, HRM encourages the employees working in an organization to work according to their potential. HR plays a significant part in defining the respective roles of the employees by providing them necessary information regarding their performances. Trim (2004) asserts that various techniques of HRM are aimed at providing satisfaction to the employees (Trim, 2004). Thus it can be evaluated that HRM with its various techniques plays a significant role in satisfaction of the employees within an organization.

2.3 Importance of employee satisfaction

Employee satisfaction is one of the ways of assessing whether the employees are happy and engaged at their work. It is the extent to which the employees are content and satisfied with their jobs. Ajayi (2012) explains the importance of employee satisfaction. Employee satisfaction is essential for the success of every organization (Ajayi, 2012). A high rate of employee contentedness results in lower turnover rate. Antoncic and Antoncic (2011) suggest that it should be a major priority for every employer to keep his employees satisfied with their careers (Antoncic and Antoncic, 2011). Employees may become discouraged because of a number of reasons. These should not be ignored by the employers. According to Bjerke, Ind and Paoli (2007), an employee who is satisfied with his job puts forward his best efforts (Bjerke, Ind and Paoli, 2007). It can be critically evaluated that if the employee is not interested in his work and is dissatisfied by it, he may find the daily work mundane. As such, he may not put in his best efforts in the job. Considering the retail sector that deals in fabric, employee satisfaction is even more important. It requires the employees to be creative in their work which is only possible if they are satisfied with their job.
As per the views of Camilleri (2007), satisfaction of employees is important for them to remain content and deliver their level best. Author asserts that satisfied employees are loyal towards the organization (Camilleri, 2007). They remain with the company even in its worst situations. Employees who find pleasure in doing their job do not work out of any compulsion. This is because they dream of taking the organization forward. Chen and et.al. (2006) explain that in the retail sector, organizations have to go through various ups and downs (Chen and et.al., 2006). Considering the retailers in the fabric sector, slight change in the tastes of the consumers causes a great shift in the products of the firm. This requires the employees to be engrossed in the essentials of the job so that they could help the organization attain its objectives. According to Chiaburu, Diaz and Vos (2013), employees are required to be passionate about their work. Passion comes only when the employees are contented with their job (Chiaburu, Diaz and Vos, 2013). In this way, employee satisfaction leads to the creation of a positive ambience in the workplace. Staff is more focused on their work and complains less. This improves their productivity and in turn increases the performance of the organization as a whole.

Employee satisfaction is also important for retention of employees. As per the views of Eskildsen, Kristensen and Westlund (2004), one of the benefits of contented employees is that they do not think of leaving their current jobs (Eskildsen, Kristensen and Westlund, 2004). For organizations to survive in the highly competitive markets of today, it is essential to retain those members of the workforce who are talented and deserving. For organizations who deal in apparel in the retail sector, talented employees are significantly important for its long term growth and success. Experienced employees are essential for the business. Furnham, Eracleous and Chamorro-Premuzic (2009) assert that satisfied employees have more experience as they work in the organization for longer period. These employees gain the skills and expertise in their area of work (Furnham, Eracleous and Chamorro-Premuzic, 2009). This makes them capable of training the new employees. It can be evaluated that employee satisfaction makes employees retained with the organization for longer time. These employees serve as an asset to the company as they provide training to the newly recruited workforce. Organizations such as Paradise Trading Co. P. Ltd, which retail in fabric, are growing firms. These are constantly recruiting new people to expand their operations. As such, there is a need to guide the new recruits so that upcoming trends in the fabric can be adopted by the firm. For this, employee satisfaction is crucial as only satisfied employees will be retained by the company and they can provide training to new members of the workforce.

Grenway (2008), stresses that one of the major problems that organizations are facing today is employee attrition (Grenway, 2008). It can be critically assessed that an individual will not leave the organization if he has ample opportunities to grow and his senior appreciate his work. According to the views of Halepota and Shah (2011), if an organization retains its employees, it gets an edge over its competitors (Halepota and Shah, 2011). Existing employees who are talented and seen the ups and downs of the company contribute in a more effective manner than the new joiners. Satisfied employees often generate a positive word of mouth about their organization. They also recommend their friends and acquaintances to join the same. In this way, employee satisfaction leads to growth of the organization. Hellawell (2012) asserts that employee satisfaction is important for ensuring higher revenues for organization (Hellawell, 2012). Contented employees develop a feeling of attachment and loyalty towards the organization. It can be assessed that satisfied employees seldom waste their time engaging in the politics of the office. This makes them ignore small issues. They also do not indulge in fighting with others.

Leat and El-Kot (2009) found in their study that employee satisfaction makes the employees helpful. Employees who are happy are always willing to help their fellow workers (Leat and El-Kot, 2009). As such, they ensure cooperation even during the emergency situations. Here, it can be evaluated that such employees would never think of leaving their jobs even during crisis. They play the role of a binding agent and encourage others around them to work as a single unit. In this way, challenges are overcome by them. This in turn helps the organization to come out of adverse situation as soon as possible. According to Ruthankoon and Ogunlana (2003), organizations in apparel industry are impacted to a great extent by various external factors (Ruthankoon and Ogunlana, 2003). Economic downturn may negatively impact the organizations such as Paradise Trading Co. P. Ltd., that retail in fabric. Employee satisfaction will make the workforce of the company stand strong even in adverse situations.

2.4 Factors responsible for employee dissatisfaction

While working in a company, dissatisfaction is experienced by many employees at one point of the time or another. Some workers want better opportunities and leave their company. Other employees have varied reasons for being dissatisfied with their job. According to Chi and Gursoy (2009), underpaying the workers is one of the primary reasons that cause dissatisfaction of the workers (Chi and Gursoy, 2009). It can be critically evaluated that with inflation, the income of the workers is in a position to lag behind. It no longer satisfies their needs. Brown and Lam (2008) also found out that workers feel stressed as they have to bear the burden of paying bills with limited income (Brown and Lam, 2008). This makes them dissatisfied with their jobs. Workers may also be dissatisfied as by getting low salaries, they may feel exploited. This hampers the feeling of trust and commitment towards the organization. However, with rising costs, retail organizations such as Paradise Trading Co. P. Ltd., which are expanding may not be in a position to pay substantial salaries to its workforce. But, it can be critically evaluated that the company can pay its employees an amount that they deserve.

Yee, Yeung and Cheng (2008) in their study explored the Herzberg’s two factors theory of motivation to suggest the factors responsible for employee dissatisfaction (Yee, Yeung and Cheng, 2008). According to this theory, there are some job factors that provide satisfaction to the workers while other factors prevent dissatisfaction. Hygiene factors are those factors which are required at a workplace for motivating workers. It can be critically evaluated that in the absence of these factors, employee dissatisfaction may be present. These are the factors extrinsic to work and are known as ‘dissatisfiers’ or ‘maintenance factors’. These include pay, company policies and administrative policies, physical working conditions, status, fringe benefits, interpersonal relations and job security. Dawal, Taha and Ismail (2009), stress that inappropriate salary structure leads to dissatisfaction of the employees (Dawal, Taha and Ismail, 2009). A pay which is unequal and incomparable to those in the same industry and same domain may make the employees feel unhappy and discontented. Considering the Herzberg’s two factor theory, it can be assessed that policies of the company also act as a factor for employee dissatisfaction to a great extent. Rigid policies make the workers feel as if they are working in a captive environment. Also, unfair and unclear administrative policies often create confusion. This expresses itself in the form of dissatisfaction of employees (Ruthankoon and Ogunlana, 2003). In this regard, it can be said that policies that include flexible working hours, dress code, vacation, breaks etc. may prevent dissatisfaction of employees.

Stressing on the theory, Jiang, Baker and Frazier (2009) assert that physical working conditions contribute to employee dissatisfaction (Jiang, Baker and Frazier, 2009). Employees working in unhealthy and unsafe conditions feel frustrated. They are not able to put in their best efforts. It can be appraised that these employees may also view the organization as insensitive towards their concerns. According to the views of Jung and Yoon (2013), in apparel industry, organizations need to provide healthy working conditions to the employees (Jung and Yoon, 2013). This is specially required for the creativity to come out in the work of employees. Uncomfortable working conditions may restrain the employees from concentrating on their work. Thus they may not be able to be innovative in their creations, which form the basis of organizations such as Paradise Trading Co. P. Ltd. In contrast to this, Maslow’s need hierarchy theory presents different reasons for dissatisfaction. Noltemeyer and et.al. (2012) studied Maslow’s need hierarchy theory. According to this theory, people have a pyramid of needs which they want to satisfy. These include physiological, belonging, self esteem, self actualization and security needs. It can be assessed that employee dissatisfaction may occur if an organization is not able to fulfill these needs of the workers. Physiological needs include air, food, water etc (Maslow hierarchy of needs theory, 2013). The employees expect the company to provide them the facility of cafeterias, drinking fountains and vending machines. Absence of these may result in discontentment.

Saeednia and Nor (2013) also affirm that employees have security needs which should be fulfilled in order to satisfy them. Security needs comprise of economic, physical and psychological elements (Saeednia and Nor, 2013). Incapability of the organizations to provide retirement and medical benefits may not fulfill the economic needs of the employees. In addition to this, abrupt changes and unsolved employee problems may reflect unfulfilled psychological needs. It can be critically evaluated that for organizations which are small in size such as Paradise Trading Co. P. Ltd., it is not feasible to fulfill economic and psychological needs of the employees. However, it may strive to meet these needs to some extent. But, employees may be dissatisfied if these needs are not met completely. According to Dye, Mills and Weatherbee (2005), absence of belongingness makes the members of the workforce feel unhappy. Employees want to be praised and awarded. They expect the business to provide training to them (Dye, Mills and Weatherbee, 2005). All these come under the needs related to self esteem. It can be analyzed that if an organization is not providing enough training to the employees, it may not be catering to the needs related related with self esteem of the employees. This may act as a factor responsible for dissatisfaction of workers. Paradise Trading Co. P. Ltd. is a fabric retailer which needs to keep up with the trends of the market in order to survive. In this regard, its workers would be requiring training to update their skills. It can be critically evaluated that in the absence of training, the employees of Paradise Trading Co. P. Ltd. would not be able to improve their performance and productivity. This situation will be responsible for their dissatisfaction with the job.

As per the views of Stum (2001), Maslow connects the existence of sense of satisfaction of people with the maintenance of need of self actualization. Inability of the organization to provide realistic challenges to the employees disappoints them (Stum, 2001). If the company is not able to encourage creativity, the need of self actualization of employees remains unmet. Employees have a desire for personal growth which needs to be addressed by the workplace. It can be evaluated that Paradise Trading Co. P. Ltd. requires the workers to be creative as it retails in fabric. If efforts are not made by the organization towards meeting self actualization needs, the workers would not be encouraged to be creative. This will restrain them from realizing their personal potential thus making them discontented. Çetin, Karabay and Efe (2012) argue that a reason why workers feel dissatisfied with the jobs is lack of career growth and advancement (Çetin, Karabay and Efe, 2012). When employees feel stuck in their job position, they become demotivated. This reduces their productivity which in turn leads to a higher level of dissatisfaction.

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Jun, Cai and Shin (2006) emphasize the fact that workers feel valued when they are included by the senior officials in the long term plans of the organization (Jun, Cai and Shin, 2006). Appreciation that employees get in the form of promotions make them satisfied and happy. It can be assessed that lack of appreciation may make the displeased with their job. When members of workforce do not get an opportunity to move up in the organization, they may feel trapped in their job position. In this situation they are not encouraged to commit themselves to the company for long term. However, it can be critically evaluated that for a small organization such as Paradise Trading Co. P. Ltd., it may not be possible that career growth of the employees takes place. With time as the organization follows the path towards expansion, it will be feasible to care for the career advancement of the workforce. According to Werner and DeSimone (2011), employees become unhappy due to a lack of interest in work. Engaging and challenging job duties seem interesting to most of the workers (Werner and DeSimone, 2011). On the other hand, boredom is experienced by the employees due to monotonous work. Little concern is shown by the bored and unchallenged employees towards productivity of the workplace. Hence, lack of interest in the work may also be a reason for dissatisfaction of employees. However, it can be critically assessed that a worker may find one work more interesting than other. An employee has to do his job and develop interest in it. Paradise Trading Co. P. Ltd. can direct its efforts towards making the work more challenging but it is up to the employees how much interest they show in their job. Hence, this factor which is responsible for dissatisfaction depends on the employees themselves to a great extent.

However Ferguson and Reio (2010) consider poor management as a factor responsible for disappointment of employees (Ferguson and Reio, 2010). An important role is played by the management team within an organization. It is the responsibility of the managers to motivate other members of the workforce. For this, proper planning, coordination and control are required. Lack of proper planning creates chaos in the organization which leads to dissatisfaction of the employees. Davies and Kanaki (2006) stress that poor management makes the employees perform poorly at the workplace (Davies and Kanaki, 2006). This makes them unhappy and discontented with their own performance. Productivity of the workforce also decreases if the managers only dictate rather than motivating the workers. It can be appraised that dissatisfaction may be experienced by the employees at Paradise Trading Co. P. Ltd. in the absence of efficient management. Inefficient management also reflects highly political cultures that may be prevalent in the organization. These tend to discourage workers and make them feel that the roles that they fill are not important to the organization. This may be a factor responsible for discontentment of the employees. Woodall and Doughlas (2002) assert that less variation in the job content makes the employees dissatisfied. Doing the same work makes it seem repetitive (Woodall and Doughlas, 2002). Repetitive work creates monotony and makes the employees frustrated.

However, Reilly and Williams (2012) argue that lack of consideration is one of the factors that make the employees exasperated. Everyone likes to be treated with consideration. Inconsiderate leadership in an organization is responsible for employee dissatisfaction (Reilly and Williams, 2012). If leaders are perceived by the employees as ruthless, it impacts their performance negatively. According to Armstrong (2011), employee satisfaction is determined to a great extent by interpersonal relations. Relationships that an employee maintains with his peers, superiors and subordinate are responsible for his level of satisfaction. Presence of element of conflict or humiliation creates dissatisfaction (Armstrong, 2011). Employees want to be treated with respect by those with whom they work. A work environment which is hostile and has unpleasant co-workers has lower job satisfaction. It can be evaluated that developing healthy personal relations with the peers depends on the employee himself. However, considering Paradise Trading Co. P. Ltd. if senior officials do not maintain healthy relationships with the employees, it may create an uncomfortable work environment. Conflicts at the workplace may lead to dissatisfaction of members of workforce at Paradise Trading Co. P. Ltd. If managers do not step in for mediating conflicts, they take the shape of serious issues. In such a workplace, employees are likely to be dissatisfied.

2.5 Effects of employee dissatisfaction on organization

For the overall success of the company, employee satisfaction is important. The impact of employee dissatisfaction ranges from high turnover to low productivity. According to the views of Allen and Wilburn (2002), employee dissatisfaction reduces productivity of the workforce. If the employees are dissatisfied, less time is spent by them on job duties (Allen and Wilburn, 2002). They tend to spend more time discussing reasons for their dissatisfaction with the coworkers. These employees are less motivated. They also pay less attention to detail. These elements reflect themselves in the form of low productivity of the workers. Being an importer and exporter of fabrics, Paradise Trading Co. P. Ltd. has to deal with domestic as well as international customers. For this, the members of its workforce are required to pay attention to the details of the work. Being unable to do so would lead to low productivity which may be experienced by the company in the form of low profits. Quality products as well as services would not be produced by them.

Slugoski (2008) stresses, that those employees who are dissatisfied take the decision to leave the company (Slugoski, 2008). Experienced employees are highly knowledgeable about the work of the organization. If they leave the company, they carry with themselves skills and expertise of the organization. It can be critically evaluated that competitors can take advantage of these skills by hiring these workers. Moreover, the parent organization would suffer loss of talent. Paradise Trading Co. P. Ltd. can be adversely impacted if talented employees leave the company due to dissatisfaction. These are capable of handling the international and domestic workers. Further, they possess the skills for understanding the local and other languages. Writing skills, computer knowledge and interpersonal skills that the experienced employees possess will be lost by the company. It can be evaluated that this will have disastrous impacts on the performance of Paradise Trading Co. P. Ltd.
According to Naus, Iterson and Roe (2007), employee dissatisfaction hampers the organization’s ability to respond to unfavorable conditions (Naus, Iterson and Roe, 2007). Employees are the strength of every organization. In times of discrepancy, these stand together to work as a single unit and help the business deal with adversities. Dissatisfied employees are themselves not interested in performing everyday work. At the time when organization is facing downs, these employees do not provide support. They are first ones to leave the company. It can be evaluated that such situations can be disastrous for Paradise Trading Co. P. Ltd. Like every other business Paradise would also have to face ups and downs. Employee dissatisfaction will not enable the organization to perform well in adverse situations. Weak performance can be fatal to the survival of the business.


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