In order to find out the best suitable solution for the issues existing in a firm, research is being made. To follow a line of investigation, study is taken in a systematic basis on some specific issue to develop new theories (Definition of Research, 2013). The main focus of the study is basically on comparison between autocratic and democratic leadership styles. In any organization, various styles are being followed by the leaders in order to guide and influence people at different time periods for achieving the set target (Bradley, 2014). In autocratic leadership style, person is majorly task oriented and gives no opportunity to people to share their views and ideas. While, in democratic style, leader is mainly relationship oriented having concern for the staff and provides maximum chances to employees for participating in decision making process (Fiegen, 2010). In order to fulfill the purpose of study, hospitality industry of UK is taken which is one of the highest profits making hospitality segment of this nation.
This is the one of the most important parts of any study as through it the similar researches and studies which are performed are highlighted. The insight knowledge about the topic can be gained by literature review. In this case, it will focus on the different leadership styles, that is, autocratic and democratic within hotels and the situations in which they are being used (Folkman and Zenger, 2002). As in hotel industry, leadership plays an important role due to the fact that people are required to give superior quality services to customers and the way they are expected to do this is instructed by the leaders of the organization. Without effective leadership, it is not possible to make employees perform in the manner they are desired to be.
In this firm, whenever there is workload and footfall of customers is high, leaders generally use autocratic leadership style so as to make the procedure followed in a strict manner. In order to avoid biases and confusions in this time period hospitality industries are required to adopt a rigid behavior with employees so as to make the process implemented in systematic way (Khan, 2011). However, if they do not take up this approach, people would perform their responsibilities as they like to be and there may be chances that the services which will be delivered to customers would not be effective. In addition, it may also lead to dissatisfaction of people which would have an impact on its profits too. Hotel firms in UK is getting various advantages through autocratic leadership style as there are very less chances of misunderstanding regarding the work of employees (Antoncic and Antoncic, 2011). This is because of the reason that leader has total control over them and he is the only one who guides them. But, in spite of having these benefits, the main limitation behind using this style is that employees do not feel satisfied which leads to their negative attitudes. A leader who follows autocratic leadership style is able to make people learn easily and in a fast manner with adequate control over them. However, along with so many pros, there is one main con too (Bertocci, 2009). Employees become dependent on the leader and work burden on him also increases.
Another style of leadership that is being used in hotel industry is democratic. It is generally used on regular basis when work load is not that high. It is employee centered in which they are well supported by maintaining healthy work relations with them. With the use of this, people working in this organization are highly satisfied and keep a positive attitude towards their work as well as for others too (5 important advantages of participative or democratic leadership, 2012). On the contrary, one major disadvantage behind this style is that people sometimes take their work as granted and do not follow the rules of the company seriously. Due to this type of behavior of them, services are delayed and customers remain dissatisfied. Democratic leadership style is best suited in times when there is need of different opinions for making any decision. By providing them opportunity to share their views, they can be made recognized, which will create happiness for the employees (Roussel, 2011). However, if for most of the time this style is implemented in hotel, there will be chances of delay in decisions as it is time consuming. It is also termed as participative leadership style which generally results in higher morale in the employment of people and induces loyalty among workers. But, in spite of the benefit, employees mostly get confused and do not have clear idea about their tasks and responsibilities which they are expected to perform.
While adopting both these leadership styles, hospitality managers face several issues. In autocratic style of leadership, leaders generally make decisions without consulting any member of the organization. It leads to dispute in hotel as most of the time there are chances that some employees are not in favor of the taking decision. In this, it is also seen that by applying this approach, less creative solutions are made which ultimately results in inefficiency of work performed by people (Richard and Johnson, 2001). Individuals working in hospitality industry feel low morale at the time when this style is being used in organization and there will be lack in their commitment level too. It is also seen that this hotel is facing some issues in adopting democratic leadership style also. Sometimes more open communication and long process of decision making leads to uncompleted projects and confusion about the responsibilities employees need to fulfill.
Research design is the framework or guidelines within which the whole research is conducted. It provides the suitable and right direction for the purpose of finding solution for the respective problem for which research is being made. With the help of this, investigation can be done in a very effective way. It reveals various methods for collecting data in order to accomplish the goal of the research and leads it to be completed in a systematic manner.
For studying the autocratic and democratic leadership style in hotels in UK, descriptive research design will be used. This study shows the characteristics of population with explanation. These features help in describing particular situations over a specific time period. Answers like how, when and why are not needed in this research design. Along with that, changes are not required to be made as this is generally observation study (Kumar, 2010). It sometimes involves one time interaction with group of people or individuals who are related to the problem. Surveys and interviews are mostly done in this research design. As in case hotel industry in UK, to measure the problem in quantity is not possible, descriptive design of research is used.
As the topic of the study is very general here, having exploratory research is not required and solutions can be easily made. The descriptive research design is used for assessing the autocratic and democratic leadership styles which are being implemented in hospitality industry as it does not require any statistical data and can be analyzed through observation (Lemeshow and Levy, 2011). By this, many methods can be developed that can be employed for any subsequent studies.
In this research, cross sectional study is being taken as topic of the investigation requires just observation in which it helps the most. There is no need in this study to change the environment. Without any manipulation, information regarding the subject can be recorded. The main benefit behind cross sectional study is that it can make comparison between different variables at a single point of time (Dawidowicz, 2010). The cause and effect relationship among variables cannot be identified through this study. Here, as the comparison has to be made in between autocratic and democratic leadership styles in hospitality firms in UK, the cross sectional study would prove to be the most effective one.
For the purpose of conducting this study, the qualitative approach is being taken as to compare the pros and cons of autocratic and democratic leadership styles among various hospitality organizations in UK. Through this, an in-depth knowledge can be gathered about the subject of the study and best possible solutions can be made. This approach makes the general conclusions which are helpful in understanding it in an easy way (Gardner, 2004). It will also help in having a deep understanding about the specific subject rather than a description on a large population. It is used for the purpose as it reveals data about human behavior in social settings. Through firsthand experience only, to get a better understanding about comparison in between autocratic and democratic leadership styles in hospitality firms in UK is possible. Also, it aims to have understanding about the surroundings of participants which has its influence on their behavior (Avcikurt, 2003).
In order to compare both, autocratic and democratic leadership styles in hotel industry, the collection methods which will be used are primary as well as secondary. As it is a descriptive research design, both these methods are useful to provide the solutions. Primary data is collected for the first time which is not gathered earlier be anyone. It is the original information which is being collected for some specific purpose. Here, to study the topic of research, primary data is used which can also be further used for other studies.
In primary data collection methods, face to face interview and observation can be taken from the employees working in hospitality industry. As they are the leaders in organization who can provide actual data about the issues they face while adopting different styles to guide people, face to face interview from the human resource managers of different hotels in UK can be taken. Various questions regarding the subject will be asked and their feedback will be recorded and analyzed (Fiegen, 2010). All questions are related to the topic only and can be asked to the managers of the hospitality organizations in UK to get the best possible solution. For this purpose, questionnaires will be given to them which would be both, open ended and close ended. Observation is the most common technique that is used in descriptive research. In this, the behavior of employees is seen and assessed in order to check the efficiency of a leadership style on them. Their performance and satisfaction level is taken into consideration in this.
Secondary data can be also used for studying the comparison in between autocratic and democratic leadership styles in hotel industry. Through this, information is already gathered by someone else and can be used for the same purpose again. It does not require much cost, time and efforts. Available data can be used for different intention also rather than for the same. In this, journals of different authors regarding this topic along with books can be taken (Hay and Hodgkinson, 2006). The online material that is the related information can be taken so as to find out the solution for respective issues in both of the leadership styles. Data present in these sources proves to be very supportive in making conclusion about the problem.
Sampling is the selection of individuals from a large population on randomly or some statistical basis in order to make justification about all the people on the basis of some particular characteristic which selected individuals possess. It is of two types, that is, probability and non probability sampling. In the given research study, simple random sampling is being done which is one of the methods of probability sampling (Khan, 2011). In this, each individual for the sample is chosen on random basis as every element of the population is having equal chances to get selected. It is one of the unbiased surveying techniques. As in the given study, the complete hotel industry of UK is being taken, to make selection on systematic basis is not possible. This is the reason; to use simple random sampling would be helpful to get the results (Antoncic and Antoncic, 2011). The sample size that is taken for the purpose to study comparison between autocratic and democratic leadership style, is twenty (20). Human resource managers from different hotels of UK are selected for this research. This method of sampling is the simplest in probability sampling as well as to interpret data in this manner is also easy in comparison to other techniques.
While carrying out the project, various ethical issues are there which needs to be considered. At the time of collecting information from the human resource managers of different hotels in hospitality industry of UK, some ethical considerations needed to kept in mind. The data which is gathered must be asked in accordance with the objective of the study only. Except that, anything else that is irrelevant to the study should not be asked from the selected individuals (Roussel, 2011). There must be surety that their confidential information will not be disclosed and would be maintained for sure. Individuals must be given with the guarantee that their personal data would not be leaked. Their approval should be taken before asking them nay question and if they denied, there should not be any pressure on them to answer. In this research, as the topic is to make comparison in between autocratic and democratic leadership styles in hospitality industry, the information that is gathered must be valid as well as reliable to maintain kits efficiency (Sobh and Perry, 2006). In order to get the final results, all the limitations and irregularities of the study must be eliminated.